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AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TRAINING

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  1. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TRAINING Exercise Physiology PE 3510

  2. I. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS • Training for a particular sport or performance goal must be based on its energy components. • The amount of time spent in practice in order to meet the energy requirements varies according to sport demands.

  3. Energy Requirements • The three energy systems often operate simultaneously during physical activity. • Relative contribution of each system to total energy requirement differs markedly depending on exercise intensity & duration. • Magnitude of energy from anaerobic sources depends on person’s capacity and tolerance for lactic acid accumulation. • As exercise intensity diminishes and duration extends beyond 4 minutes, energy more dependent on aerobic metabolism.

  4. Three Systems of Energy

  5. II. TRAINING PRINCIPLES • pecificity • rogression • verload • eversibility • rait

  6. 1. Specificity of Training In order for a training program to be beneficial, it must develop the specific physiological capabilities required to perform a given sport or activity. SAID: specific adaptation to imposed demand.

  7. Types of Specificity • Metabolic • Mode of Exercise • Muscle Group • Movement Pattern

  8. The predominant energy source depends upon (1) duration, and (2) intensity of exercise.

  9. Metabolic Specificity

  10. 2. Progressive Overload Overload must be progressive to continue to prompt training adaptations.

  11. 3. Overload • Exercising at a level above normal brings biological adaptations that improve functional efficiency. • In order to overload aerobic or anaerobic systems, training must be quantified. • Quantity of Training: intensity & volume (frequency and duration).

  12. Quantification of Training Quantity of Training Quality of Training ≠ Intensity Volume

  13. Intensity of Training • Training intensity relates to how hard one exercises. • When the number of muscle actions is increased, the muscle’s energy and oxygen transport systems are stimulated to improve.

  14. Volume of Training • Training adaptations are best achieved when optimal amount of work in training sessions • Optimal amount of work varies individually • Training volume can be increased by either duration or frequency • Improvement depends in part on kcals per session and work/week

  15. 4. Reversibility • Most metabolic and cardiorespiratory benefits gained through exercise training are lost within relatively short period of time after training is stopped. • In one experiment, VO2 max, maximal stroke volume and cardiac output decreased roughly 1% per day during 20 days bed rest.

  16. Detraining

  17. Detraining

  18. 5. Individual Traits • Relative fitness level at beginning of training. • Trainees respond differently to given exercise stimulus.

  19. III. ANAEROBIC TRAINING • ATP-PCr System: All-out bursts for 5 to 10 sec. Recovery progresses rapidly (30 to 60 sec). • Glycolytic System: Bouts of up to 1 min of intense, rhythmic repeated several times interspersed with 3-5 min recovery (“lactate stacking”).

  20. IV. AEROBIC TRAINING Evaluating Initial Status & Training Success • The Gold Standard for evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness • Children: VO2 max improves only slightly for children who aerobic train

  21. B. Four Factors that Influence Aerobic Conditioning • Initial fitness level • Frequency of training • Intensity of training • Duration of training

  22. V. Adaptations to Anaerobic and Aerobic Training • Anaerobic Fitness • Training Effect: the chronic anatomic, morphologic, physiologic, and psychologic changes that result from repeated exposure to exercise. • Assessing Anaerobic Power: Wingate (Ch. 8) and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit.

  23. Anaerobic Training Effect • Skeletal Muscle • Increased intramuscular levels of anaerobic substrates: ATP, CP, and Glycogen • Increased quantity and activity of enzymes that control the ATP-PC system. • Increased quantity and activity of key enzymes that control anaerobic phase of glycolysis • Increased capacity to generate high levels of blood lactate (and pain tolerance)

  24. Anaerobic Training Effect • Heart Changes due to pressure overload. • Thickened septum • Thickening of posterior wall • Increased left ventricular mass with no change in left ventricular end diastolic volume (concentric hypertrophy)

  25. B. Adaptations in the Aerobic System • Metabolic Adaptations • Cardiovascular Adaptations • Pulmonary Adaptations • Body Composition Adaptations • Body Heat Transfer

  26. Metabolic Adaptations • Metabolic Machinery: mitochondrial size and number • Enzymes: aerobic system enzymes • Fat Metabolism: increased lipolysis • Carbohydrate Metabolism: increased capacity to oxidize carbohydrate • Muscle Fiber Type and Size: selective hypertrophy muscle fiber type.

  27. Heart Size eccentric hypertrophy Plasma Volume Up to 20% Stroke Volume Increases 50-60% Heart Rate Cardiac Output Oxygen extraction Blood flow and distribution Increased capillarization Blood Pressure Decrease 6 to 10 mm Hg with regular aerobic ex. Cardiovascular Adaptations

  28. Pulmonary Adaptations • Increased maximal exercise minute ventilation • Increased ventilatory equivalent: VE/VO2 • In general, tidal volume increases and breathing frequency decreases

  29. VI. ANAEROBIC TRAINING • Goals of Anaerobic Training • Training Methods • Prescription Content • Frequency and Duration

  30. A. Goals of Anaerobic Training

  31. B. Training Methods • Acceleration Sprints: gradual increases from slow to moderate to full sprinting in 50-100 m segments followed by 50 m light activity. • Interval Training: Repeated periods of work alternated with periods of relief. • Sprint Training: Repeated sprints at maximal speed with complete recovery (5 minutes or more) between repeats. Only 3 to 6 bouts in a session.

  32. C. Prescription Content • Training Time: rate of work during the work interval (e.g. 200-m in 28 seconds) • Repetitions: number of work intervals per set (e.g. six 200-m runs) • Sets: a grouping of work and relief intervals (e.g. a set is six 200-m runs @ 28 sec, 1:24 rest interval) • Work-relief Ratio: time ratio of work and relief (e.g., 1:2 means relief is twice work) • Type of Relief: rest or light to mild exercise

  33. D. Frequency and Duration of Training • The energy demands of high-intensity training on the glycolytic system rapidly depletes muscle glycogen • Muscles can become chronically depleted of energy reserves

  34. V. AEROBIC TRAINING • Goals of Aerobic Training • Guidelines • Training Methods • Determining Intensity • Exercise During Pregnancy

  35. A. Goals of Aerobic Training

  36. B. Guidelines • Start slowly: severe muscle discomfort & excessive cardiovascular strain offer no benefit • Warm up: adjusts coronary blood flow & hemoglobin unloading • Cool-down period: allow metabolism to regress to resting

  37. C. Aerobic Training Methods • Continuous, slow: Long-distance at a slow, steady pace • Continuous, fast: Long-distance at a fast, steady pace • Interval sprinting: Repeated periods of work interspersed with periods of relief • Speed play (Fartlek): Alternating fast and slow running over varying, natural terrain

  38. D. Determining Training Intensity • Train at a percentage of max VO2 • Train at a percentage of max HR • Train at a perceived exertion level • Train at given work rate (speed) for each exercise interval

  39. 2. Relief Interval • 1:3 for training immediate energy systems • 1:2 for training glycolytic energy systems • 1:1 or 1:1/2 for training aerobic energy systems

  40. 3. Maintaining Aerobic Fitness • Studies reveal that if exercise intensity is maintained, the frequency and duration of training can be reduced considerably without decrements in aerobic performance

  41. F. Exercise during Pregnancy • During vigorous exercise, some blood diverted from uterus & could pose hazard to fetus • Elevation in maternal core temperature could hinder heat dissipation from fetus

  42. VIII. TRAINING PHASES

  43. Illustrations • McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch. 2000. Essentials of Exercise Physiology 2nd ed. Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. • Plowman, Sharon A. and Denise L. Smith. 1998. Digital Image Archive for Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon.