AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TRAINING Exercise Physiology PE 3510
I. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS • Training for a particular sport or performance goal must be based on its energy components. • The amount of time spent in practice in order to meet the energy requirements varies according to sport demands.
Energy Requirements • The three energy systems often operate simultaneously during physical activity. • Relative contribution of each system to total energy requirement differs markedly depending on exercise intensity & duration. • Magnitude of energy from anaerobic sources depends on person’s capacity and tolerance for lactic acid accumulation. • As exercise intensity diminishes and duration extends beyond 4 minutes, energy more dependent on aerobic metabolism.
II. TRAINING PRINCIPLES • pecificity • rogression • verload • eversibility • rait
1. Specificity of Training In order for a training program to be beneficial, it must develop the specific physiological capabilities required to perform a given sport or activity. SAID: specific adaptation to imposed demand.
Types of Specificity • Metabolic • Mode of Exercise • Muscle Group • Movement Pattern
The predominant energy source depends upon (1) duration, and (2) intensity of exercise.
2. Progressive Overload Overload must be progressive to continue to prompt training adaptations.
3. Overload • Exercising at a level above normal brings biological adaptations that improve functional efficiency. • In order to overload aerobic or anaerobic systems, training must be quantified. • Quantity of Training: intensity & volume (frequency and duration).
Quantification of Training Quantity of Training Quality of Training ≠ Intensity Volume
Intensity of Training • Training intensity relates to how hard one exercises. • When the number of muscle actions is increased, the muscle’s energy and oxygen transport systems are stimulated to improve.
Volume of Training • Training adaptations are best achieved when optimal amount of work in training sessions • Optimal amount of work varies individually • Training volume can be increased by either duration or frequency • Improvement depends in part on kcals per session and work/week
4. Reversibility • Most metabolic and cardiorespiratory benefits gained through exercise training are lost within relatively short period of time after training is stopped. • In one experiment, VO2 max, maximal stroke volume and cardiac output decreased roughly 1% per day during 20 days bed rest.
5. Individual Traits • Relative fitness level at beginning of training. • Trainees respond differently to given exercise stimulus.
III. ANAEROBIC TRAINING • ATP-PCr System: All-out bursts for 5 to 10 sec. Recovery progresses rapidly (30 to 60 sec). • Glycolytic System: Bouts of up to 1 min of intense, rhythmic repeated several times interspersed with 3-5 min recovery (“lactate stacking”).
IV. AEROBIC TRAINING Evaluating Initial Status & Training Success • The Gold Standard for evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness • Children: VO2 max improves only slightly for children who aerobic train
B. Four Factors that Influence Aerobic Conditioning • Initial fitness level • Frequency of training • Intensity of training • Duration of training
V. Adaptations to Anaerobic and Aerobic Training • Anaerobic Fitness • Training Effect: the chronic anatomic, morphologic, physiologic, and psychologic changes that result from repeated exposure to exercise. • Assessing Anaerobic Power: Wingate (Ch. 8) and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit.
Anaerobic Training Effect • Skeletal Muscle • Increased intramuscular levels of anaerobic substrates: ATP, CP, and Glycogen • Increased quantity and activity of enzymes that control the ATP-PC system. • Increased quantity and activity of key enzymes that control anaerobic phase of glycolysis • Increased capacity to generate high levels of blood lactate (and pain tolerance)
Anaerobic Training Effect • Heart Changes due to pressure overload. • Thickened septum • Thickening of posterior wall • Increased left ventricular mass with no change in left ventricular end diastolic volume (concentric hypertrophy)
B. Adaptations in the Aerobic System • Metabolic Adaptations • Cardiovascular Adaptations • Pulmonary Adaptations • Body Composition Adaptations • Body Heat Transfer
Metabolic Adaptations • Metabolic Machinery: mitochondrial size and number • Enzymes: aerobic system enzymes • Fat Metabolism: increased lipolysis • Carbohydrate Metabolism: increased capacity to oxidize carbohydrate • Muscle Fiber Type and Size: selective hypertrophy muscle fiber type.
Heart Size eccentric hypertrophy Plasma Volume Up to 20% Stroke Volume Increases 50-60% Heart Rate Cardiac Output Oxygen extraction Blood flow and distribution Increased capillarization Blood Pressure Decrease 6 to 10 mm Hg with regular aerobic ex. Cardiovascular Adaptations
Pulmonary Adaptations • Increased maximal exercise minute ventilation • Increased ventilatory equivalent: VE/VO2 • In general, tidal volume increases and breathing frequency decreases
VI. ANAEROBIC TRAINING • Goals of Anaerobic Training • Training Methods • Prescription Content • Frequency and Duration
B. Training Methods • Acceleration Sprints: gradual increases from slow to moderate to full sprinting in 50-100 m segments followed by 50 m light activity. • Interval Training: Repeated periods of work alternated with periods of relief. • Sprint Training: Repeated sprints at maximal speed with complete recovery (5 minutes or more) between repeats. Only 3 to 6 bouts in a session.
C. Prescription Content • Training Time: rate of work during the work interval (e.g. 200-m in 28 seconds) • Repetitions: number of work intervals per set (e.g. six 200-m runs) • Sets: a grouping of work and relief intervals (e.g. a set is six 200-m runs @ 28 sec, 1:24 rest interval) • Work-relief Ratio: time ratio of work and relief (e.g., 1:2 means relief is twice work) • Type of Relief: rest or light to mild exercise
D. Frequency and Duration of Training • The energy demands of high-intensity training on the glycolytic system rapidly depletes muscle glycogen • Muscles can become chronically depleted of energy reserves
V. AEROBIC TRAINING • Goals of Aerobic Training • Guidelines • Training Methods • Determining Intensity • Exercise During Pregnancy
B. Guidelines • Start slowly: severe muscle discomfort & excessive cardiovascular strain offer no benefit • Warm up: adjusts coronary blood flow & hemoglobin unloading • Cool-down period: allow metabolism to regress to resting
C. Aerobic Training Methods • Continuous, slow: Long-distance at a slow, steady pace • Continuous, fast: Long-distance at a fast, steady pace • Interval sprinting: Repeated periods of work interspersed with periods of relief • Speed play (Fartlek): Alternating fast and slow running over varying, natural terrain
D. Determining Training Intensity • Train at a percentage of max VO2 • Train at a percentage of max HR • Train at a perceived exertion level • Train at given work rate (speed) for each exercise interval
2. Relief Interval • 1:3 for training immediate energy systems • 1:2 for training glycolytic energy systems • 1:1 or 1:1/2 for training aerobic energy systems
3. Maintaining Aerobic Fitness • Studies reveal that if exercise intensity is maintained, the frequency and duration of training can be reduced considerably without decrements in aerobic performance
F. Exercise during Pregnancy • During vigorous exercise, some blood diverted from uterus & could pose hazard to fetus • Elevation in maternal core temperature could hinder heat dissipation from fetus
Illustrations • McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch. 2000. Essentials of Exercise Physiology 2nd ed. Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. • Plowman, Sharon A. and Denise L. Smith. 1998. Digital Image Archive for Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon.