Codes and Rules for Description: History University of California, Berkeley School of InformationIS 245: Organization of Information In Collections
Lecture Contents • Review • Controlled Vocabularies • Metadata as Infrastructure • Introduction to Description – Codes and Rules • Discussion
Controlled Vocabularies • Vocabulary control is the attempt to provide a standardized and consistent set of terms (such as subject headings, names, classifications, etc.) with the intent of aiding the searcher in finding information • That is, it is an attempt to provide a consistent set of descriptions for use in (or as) metadata
Metadata as Infrastructure • The difference between memorization and understanding lies in knowing the context and relationships of whatever is of interest. When setting out to learn about a new topic, a well-tested practice is to follow the traditional “5Ws and the H”: Who?, What?, When?, Where?, Why?, and How?
Metadata as Infrastructure • The reference collections of paper-based libraries provide a structured environment for resources, with encyclopedias and subject catalogs, gazetteers, chronologies, and biographical dictionaries, offering direct support for at least What, Where, When, and Who. • The digital environment does not yet provide an effective, and easily exploited, infrastructure comparable to the traditional reference library.
Connecting Metadata Systems Linking vocabularies WHAT, WHERE, WHEN Library subject headings Topic – Geographic subdivision – Chronological subdivision Place name gazetteer: Place name – Type – Spatial markers (Lat & long) – When Time Period Directory Period name – Type – Time markers (Calendar) – WhereC
Time period directories link via the place (or time) Thesaurus/ Ontology Texts EVI Maps/ Geo Data Gazetteers captions Numeric datasets Time Period Directory Time lines, Chronologies
WHEN: Time Period Directory Timeline Link to Catalog Link to Wikipedia
WHO: Biographical Dictionary Complex relationships Life events metadata WHAT: Actions prisoner WHERE: Places Holstein WHEN: Times 1261-1262 WHO: People Margaret Sambiria Need external links
Any document, object, or performance Connect it with its context – and other resources. Facet Vocabulary Displays WHATThesaurus Cross- e.g. LCSH references WHEREGazetteer Map WHENPeriod directory Timeline WHOBiograph. dict. Personal e.g. Who’s Who relations Any catalog: Archives, Libraries, Museums, TV, Publishers Any resource: Audio, Images, Texts, Numeric data, Objects, Virtual reality, Webpages
Zooming in to South Asia Select Restricting time frame
Berkeley Natural History Museums BBC Ethnologue Wikipedia CIA Factbook More information about the country of India…
Historical events – linked to Library catalog & Wikipedia : none avail. for this time period
ECAI Cultural Atlases: presenting history in its geographical & chronological contexts
Today • History of Cataloging Codes • Other Metadata systems • Bibliographic information • Bibliographic records
Cataloging Codes • Why have codes? • Definition: • A catalogue code is a systematic arrangement of laws and stututes so as to avoid inconsistency and duplication in catalogues. (Rowley, p. 105)
History of Cataloging Codes • Early Library Organization Methods • British Museum Rules (Panizzi’s 91 rules,1841) • Cutter’s Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (1876) • Prussian Instructions (1898) • Anglo-American Code (1908) • ALA Code (1949) • Library of Congress Rules (1949) • AACR (1967) Lubetsky’s revision • AACR II (1978 revised 1988 and 1998) Vis. Rowley, Chap 8
Bibliographic Information • Describes documents • What is a document (revisited)? • Choice of descriptive elements and content of those elements typically governed by a set of rules: • AACR II • Elements coded in standard ways for transmission. • MARC
Goals of Descriptive Cataloging • 1. To enable a person to find a document of which • the author, or • the title, or • the subject is known • 2. To show what a library has • by a given author • on a given subject (and related subjects) • in a given kind (or form) of literature. • 3. To assist in the choice of a document • as to its edition (bibliographically) • as to its character (literary or topical) Charles A. Cutter, 1876
Rules for Descriptive Cataloging • ISBD • AACR • AACR II
AACRII • Sources of Information • ISBD areas • Choice of Access Points
Sources of Information • Each different type of material has a preferred location for deriving information about it. • Books and printed material • Title page • Cartographic Materials (Maps, globes, etc) • The map itself, or containers, stands, etc. • Sound recordings • Disc label, cassette label, etc.
ISBD Areas • Title and Statement of Responsibility • Edition • Material or type of publication specification • Publication, Distribution (etc.) • Physical Description • Series • Notes • Standard Numbers
ISBD Punctuation • Title Proper (GMD) = Parallel title : other title info / First statement of responsibility ; others. -- Edition information. -- Material. -- Place of Publication : Publisher Name, Date. -- Material designation and extent ; Dimensions of item. --(Title of Series / Statement of responsibility). -- Notes. -- Standard numbers: terms of availability (qualifications).
Bibliographic Record • Introduction to cataloging and classification / Bohdan S. Wynar. -- 8th ed. / Arlene G. Taylor. -- Englewood, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited, 1992. -- (Library science text series).
Choice of Access Points • Title(s) (Always main title) • Main Entry?? • Added Entries • Series Titles • Identifying Numbers
Next Time • More on bibliographic description and rules
Assignment (Due Thursday) • Describe the Svenonius book using the 15 Dublin Core elements • Describe the book using ISBD
Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Other Contributors Date Resource Type Format Resource Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights Management Dublin Core Elements