Understanding Cancer. Understanding Cancer. Understanding Cancer. Understanding Cancer. Understanding Cancer. Metastasis, Or Spread of Cancer. Once cancer cells are attached, they may pass through the lining of the lymph or blood vessel. Attachment A primary tumor attaches to a
Once cancer cells
are attached, they
may pass through
the lining of the lymph
or blood vessel.
A primary tumor
attaches to a
(or lymph node).
The cancer cells may
then move through the
blood and lymph system
to form a secondary
tumor, or metastasis, at
another site in the body.
Cancer cells move into
the circulation system and
spread to other parts of the body,
colonizing other organs. This traveling and
reproducing is called metastasizing.
Change in Bowel or Bladder Habits
A Sore That Doesn’t Heal
Unusual Bleeding or Discharge
Thickening or Lump in the Breast, Testis, or Elsewhere
Indigestion or Difficulty Swallowing
Obvious Change in a Wart or Mole
Nagging Cough or Hoarseness
The single most devastating and preventable cause of cancer deaths in the United States
People who smoke two or more packs of cigarettes per day are 15 to 25 times more likely to die from cancer than nonsmokers.
The same foods that keep your heart healthy, your blood pressure low, your bones strong, and your weight under control are most likely to reduce your risk of cancer.
Maintain a Healthy Weight
Obesity causes 1 in 6 cancer deaths.
Limit Exposure to Environmental Risks
Avoid carcinogens such as nickel, chromate, asbestos, and vinyl chloride.
Limit chronic use of hair dye, especially dark shades of permanent coloring.
Proven methods of cancer prevention and early detection could save more than 60,000 lives a year.
Schedule screening exams, and perform regular self-exams.
Asymmetry: One half doesn’t match the other half
The edges are ragged,
notched, or blurred
Color: Rather than
there are shades of
tan, brown, and black,
with possible dashes
of red, white, and blue.
Diameter: The mole
is larger than 6 mm
(about the size of a
Fig. 16-6, p. 468