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Understanding Cancer. Understanding Cancer. Understanding Cancer. Understanding Cancer. Understanding Cancer. Metastasis, Or Spread of Cancer. Once cancer cells are attached, they may pass through the lining of the lymph or blood vessel. Attachment A primary tumor attaches to a

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Metastasis, Or Spread of Cancer

Once cancer cells

are attached, they

may pass through

the lining of the lymph

or blood vessel.


A primary tumor

attaches to a

blood vessel

(or lymph node).

The cancer cells may

then move through the

blood and lymph system

to form a secondary

tumor, or metastasis, at

another site in the body.

Cancer cells move into

the circulation system and

spread to other parts of the body,

colonizing other organs. This traveling and

reproducing is called metastasizing.

seven warning signs of cancer
Seven Warning Signs of Cancer

Change in Bowel or Bladder Habits

A Sore That Doesn’t Heal

Unusual Bleeding or Discharge

Thickening or Lump in the Breast, Testis, or Elsewhere

Indigestion or Difficulty Swallowing

Obvious Change in a Wart or Mole

Nagging Cough or Hoarseness

lowering your cancer risk
Lowering Your Cancer Risk

Stay Smoke-Free

The single most devastating and preventable cause of cancer deaths in the United States

People who smoke two or more packs of cigarettes per day are 15 to 25 times more likely to die from cancer than nonsmokers.

Eat Smart

The same foods that keep your heart healthy, your blood pressure low, your bones strong, and your weight under control are most likely to reduce your risk of cancer.

lowering your cancer risk14
Lowering Your Cancer Risk

Maintain a Healthy Weight

Obesity causes 1 in 6 cancer deaths.

Limit Exposure to Environmental Risks

Avoid carcinogens such as nickel, chromate, asbestos, and vinyl chloride.

Limit chronic use of hair dye, especially dark shades of permanent coloring.

Be Vigilant

Proven methods of cancer prevention and early detection could save more than 60,000 lives a year.

Schedule screening exams, and perform regular self-exams.

common types of cancer
Common Types of Cancer





three types of skin cancer
Three Types of Skin Cancer

Squamous-cell cancer


Basal-cell cancer

abcd the warning signs of melanoma
ABCD: The Warning Signs of Melanoma

Asymmetry: One half doesn’t match the other half

Border irregularity:

The edges are ragged,

notched, or blurred

Color: Rather than

uniform pigmentation,

there are shades of

tan, brown, and black,

with possible dashes

of red, white, and blue.

Diameter: The mole

is larger than 6 mm

(about the size of a

pencil eraser).

breast self exam
Breast Self-Exam

Fig. 16-6, p. 468