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The Development of Large-Area Psec-Resolution TOF Systems. Henry Frisch Enrico Fermi Institute and Physics Dept University of Chicago. With Harold Sanders, and Fukun Tang (EFI-EDG ) Karen Byrum and Gary Drake (ANL); Tim Credo (IMSA, now Harvard), Shreyas Bhat, and David Yu (students).

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the development of large area psec resolution tof systems

The Development of Large-Area Psec-Resolution TOF Systems

Henry Frisch

Enrico Fermi Institute and Physics Dept

University of Chicago

With Harold Sanders, and Fukun Tang (EFI-EDG)Karen Byrum and Gary Drake (ANL); Tim Credo (IMSA, now Harvard), Shreyas Bhat, and David Yu (students)

HJF DOE Review

what is the intrinsic limit for tof for rel particles

What is the intrinsic limit for TOF for rel. particles?

Typical path lengths for light and electrons are set by physical dimensions of the light collection and amplifying device.

These are now on the order of an inch. One inch is 100 psec. That’s what we measure- no surprise! (pictures swiped from T. Credo talk at Workshop)

HJF DOE Review

major advances for tof measurements

Micro-photograph of Burle 25 micron tube- Greg Sellberg (Fermilab)

Major advances for TOF measurements:

1. Development of MCP’s with 6-10 micron pore diameters

HJF DOE Review

major advances for tof measurements4

Output at anode from simulation of 10 particles going through fused quartz window- T. Credo, R. Schroll

Major advances for TOF measurements:

Jitter on leading edge 0.86 psec

2. Ability to simulate electronics and systems

to predict design performance

HJF DOE Review

major advances for tof measurements5

Simulation with IHP Gen3 SiGe process- Fukun Tang (EFI-EDG)

Major advances for TOF measurements:

3. Electronics with typical gate jitters << 1 psec

HJF DOE Review

geometry for a collider detector

Geometry for a Collider Detector

2” by 2” MCP’s

Beam Axis

“r” is expensive- need a thin segmented detector


HJF DOE Review

generating the signal

Generating the signal

A 2” x 2” MCP- actual thickness ~3/4”

e.g. Burle (Photonis) 85022-with mods per our work

Use Cherenkov light - fast

HJF DOE Review

anode structure

RF Transmission Lines

  • Summing smaller anode pads into 1” by 1” readout pixels
  • An equal time sum- make transmission lines equal propagation times
  • Work on leading edge- ringing not a problem for this fine segmentation

Anode Structure

HJF DOE Review

tim s equal time collector

Tim’s Equal-Time Collector

4 Outputs- each to a TDC chip (ASIC)

Chip to have < 1psec resolution(!)

-we are doing this in the EDG (Harold, Tang).

Equal-time transmission-line traces to output pin

HJF DOE Review

dummy 1
Dummy 1

HJF DOE Review

mounting electronics on back of mcp matching

Mounting electronics on back of MCP- matching

Conducting Epoxy- machine deposited by Greg Sellberg (Fermilab)


HJF DOE Review

edg s unique capabilities harold s design for readout

EDG’s Unique Capabilities - Harold’s Design for Readout

Each module has 5 chips- 4 TDC chips (one per quadrant) and a DAQ `mother’ chip.

Problems are stability, calibration, rel. phase, noise.

Both chips are underway


HJF DOE Review

requirement psec resolution tdc
Requirement: Psec-Resolution TDC

Tang Slide

MCP_PMT Output Signal



Reference Clock



1 ps Resolution Time-to-Digital Converter!!!

HJF DOE Review

approaches possibilities
Approaches & Possibilities

(2) Time Stretcher

Tang Slide


“Zero”-walk Disc.



11-bit Counter




2 Ghz PLL


HJF DOE Review

psFront-end (Timing Module Option #2)

time stretcher simulation result
Time Stretcher:Simulation Result

Tang Slide

x200 StretchedTime Interval (Output Signal )

Stretched Time = 274ns


1ns Time Interval (Input Signal)

HJF DOE Review

0 50ns 100ns 150ns 200ns 250ns 300ns

vco submission of oct 2006
VCO: Submission of Oct. 2006

Ultimate Goal:

  • To build TDC with 1 pSec Resolution for Large Scale of Time-of-Flight Detector.

Primary Goal:

  • To build 2-Ghz VCO, key module of PLL that generates the TDC reference signal
      • Cycle-to-Cycle Time-jitter < 1 ps
  • To evaluate IHP SG25H1/M4M5 Technology for our applications
  • To gain experiences on using Cadence tools (Virtuoso Analog Environment)
    • Circuit Design(VSE)
    • Simulation(Spectre)
    • Chip Layout(VLE, XLE, VCAR)
    • DRC and LVS Check (Diva, Assura, Calibre)
    • Parasitic Extraction(Diva)
    • Post Layout Simulation(Spectre)
    • GDSIIStream out
    • Validation
    • Tape Out

Tang Slide

HJF DOE Review

diagram of phase locked loop
Diagram of Phase-Locked Loop

Tang Slide











PD: Phase Detector

CP: Charge Pump

LF: Loop Filter

VCO: Voltage Controlled Oscillator

HJF DOE Review

ihp sg25h1 0 25 m m sige bicmos technology
IHP (SG25H1) 0.25mm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
  • 0.25mm BiCMOS technology
  • 200Ghz NPN HBT (hetero-junction bipolar transistor)
  • MIM Capacitors (layer2-layer3) ( 1f/1u2 )
  • Inductors (layer3-layer4)
  • High dielectric stack for RF passive component
  • 5 metal layers (Al)
  • Digital Library: Developing

Tang Slide

HJF DOE Review

2 ghz bicmos vco schematic

Tang Slide

2-GHz BiCMOS VCO Schematic

Negative Resistance and Current-Limited Voltage Control Oscillator with Accumulating PMOS Varicap and 50W Line Drivers

HJF DOE Review

v f plot 3 model cases @ 27c 55c
V-F Plot (3 model cases @ 27C-55C)


Tang Slide



VControl varied 0.18V


HJF DOE Review

phase noise 3 model cases @ 27c
Phase Noise ( 3 model cases @ 27C)

@100KHz offset


Tang Slide



Tang Slide



HJF DOE Review

calculation of cycle to cycle jitter
Calculation of Cycle-to-Cycle Jitter

Tang Slide

HJF DOE Review

virtuoso xl layout view
Virtuoso XL Layout View

Tang Slide

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virtuoso chip assembly router view
Virtuoso Chip Assembly Router View

Tang Slide

HJF DOE Review

transit analysis comparison of schematic and post layout simulations
Transit Analysis: Comparison of Schematic and Post Layout Simulations

Outputs@50W loads


Post Layout

HJF DOE Review

Tang Slide

simulation for coil showering and various pmts shreyas bhat
Simulation for Coil Showering and various PMTs (Shreyas Bhat)
  • Right now, we have a simulation using GEANT4, ROOT, connected by a python script
  • GEANT4: pi+ enters solenoid, e- showers
  • ROOT: MCP simulation - get position, time of arrival of charge at anode pads
  • Both parts are approximations
  • Could we make this less home-brew and more modular?
  • Could we use GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission) to simplify present and future modifications?
  • Working with Prof. Chin-tu Chen and students, UCHospitals Radiology- they know GATE very well, use it regularly

HJF DOE Review

possible collider applications

Separating b from b-bar in measuring the top mass (lessens combinatorics)

  • Identifying csbar and udbar modes of the W to jj decays in the top mass analysis (need this once one is below 1 GeV, I believe)
  • Separating out vertices from different collisions at the LHC in the z-t plane
  • Identifying photons with vertices at the LHC (requires spacial resolution and converter ahead of the TOF system
  • Locating the Higgs vertex in H to gamma-gamma at the LHC (mass resolution)
  • Kaon ID in same-sign tagging in B physics (X3 in CDF Bs mixing analysis)
  • Fixed target geometries- LHCb, Diffractive LHC Higgs, (and rare K and charm FT experiments)
  • Super-B factory (Nagoya Group, V’avra at SLAC)

Possible Collider Applications

synergies the ilc radiology anl fermilab slac bsd saclay photonis

ILC- met with Fermilab last week to discuss possible ILC applications- have propsed a workshop with them to explore physics of particle ID at the ILC

  • Positron-Emission Tomography – have a draft of a proposal to UC for a program for applying HEP techniques to radiology -with Chin-Tu Chen, Radiology
  • Have agreed to write MOU with Saclay (Patrick LeDu)
  • Have agreed to write MOU withPhotonis/Burle to develop new MCPs optimized for timing
  • We are working with Jerry V’avra (SLAC) on measurement setups (Karen and Gary at ANL have the setup).

Synergies- The ILC, RadiologyANL,Fermilab,SLAC, BSD,Saclay, Photonis


Have a simulation of Cherenkov radiation in MCP into electronics

  • Have placed an order with Burle- have the 1st of 4 tubes and have a good working relationship (their good will and expertise is a major part of the effort): 10 micron tube in the works; optimized versions discussed
  • Have licence and tools from IHP working on our work stations- Tang is adept and fast working with them. Excellent support from Cadence.
  • Have modeled DAQ/System chip in Altera (Jakob Van Santen: Sr)
  • ANL has put together a test stand with working DAQ, has bought a very-fast laser, has made contact with advanced accel folks:(+students)
  • Have established strong working relationship with Chin-Tu Chen’s PET group at UC; source of good students; common interests (with Saclay too). Hope can establish a program in the application of HEP to meds
  • Harold and Tang have a good grasp of the overall system problems and scope, and have a top-level design plus details
  • Have found Greg Sellberg at Fermilab to offer expert precision assembly advice and help (wonderful tools and talent!).
  • 9. Are working closely with Jerry V’avra (SLAC); will work with Saclay


HJF DOE Review

next steps

This was the text on my penultimate slide at the workshop at Arlington TX in April

  • Start testing the MK-0 device we have (ANL)
  • Understand the electrical circuit in the MCP and specify the next model (MK-I) we want
  • Finish the design and place the order to IHP for the 1st chip.

Next Steps

THE END (not really)

Substantial Progress on all 3


For more documents and links

HJF DOE Review

the electronics development group of the efi
The Electronics Development Groupof the EFI
  • Over a million dollars of software tools from a number of vendors- built up by Harold. Nowhere else I know of…
  • Major impact on CDF,Atlas, KTeV, Quiet, …
  • Serves not just UC- other institutions send folks here- systems are collaborative
  • Student involvement- we train students in cutting-edge electronics (grad and underg)
  • Highly innovative designs -

HJF DOE Review

doe adr funds
  • First chip submission was last week-ADR
  • Tang leaves tomorrow for Germany for IHP Workshop-ADR
  • Starting on next submission design…
  • Will seed collaborative work with ANL, SLAC (V’avra), and, hopefully, Fermilab
  • Would like to discuss longer-term support for a program of Applications of HEP Techniques to Radiology, and also some EDG support.

HJF DOE Review

backup slides
Backup Slides


HJF DOE Review

got burle mk 0 our name many thanks
Got Burle MK-0 (our name)- many thanks!
  • Paul Mitchell has done nice things- wonderful test bed for understanding

HJF DOE Review

v f plot comparison of schematic and post layout simulations
V-F Plot: Comparison of Schematic and Post Layout Simulations





HJF DOE Review

phase noise post layout simulations vdd 2 5v temp 27c 55c
Phase Noise: Post Layout SimulationsVDD=2.5V Temp.=27C, 55C

Phase Noise @100KHZ offset

HJF DOE Review

a real cdf event r phi view

A real CDF event- r-phi view

Key idea- fit t0 (start) from all tracks

HJF DOE Review


(1) VCO time-jitter met our requirement.

(2) Post layout simulation matched schematic simulation very well.

(3) Some problems we have encountered with pcell library, layout, DRC, LVS and auto-routing functionalities.

(4)Ready for October Submission.

HJF DOE Review


Shreyas Bhat slide

π+ Generation, Coil



  • Input Source code, Macros Files
  • Geometry
  • Materials
  • Particle:
    • Type
    • Energy
    • Initial Positions, Momentum
  • Physics processes
  • Verbose level

Have position,

time, momentum,

kinetic energy of

each particle for each step

(including upon entrance to PMT)

  • Need to redo geometry (local approx.➔ cylinder)
  • Need to redo field
  • Need to connect two modules (python script in placefor older simulation)


GEANT4 - swappable


Get position, time

HJF DOE Review


Shreyas Bhat slide

π+ Generation


  • Input Macros Files - precompiledsource
  • Geometry
  • Materials
  • Particle:
    • Type
    • Energy
    • Initial Positions, Momentum
  • Verbose level

Physics processes

macros file

Solenoid Showering


But, we need to write

Source code for

Magnetic Field, recompile


GATE - swap with

default “digitization”



Get position, time

HJF DOE Review

the hard parts reality

Haven’t yet plugged in a device- all simulation

  • Harold and Paul Mitchell (Burle) have taught us that the hard part is the return path from MCP-OUT to the Gd
  • Haven’t yet submitted a design to IHP- don’t know the realities of making chips (in progress as we speak)
  • Have no equipment to test these chips when we get them
  • Have no experience on how to measure device performance when we actually get them.
  • We are a small group- lots to do!

The Hard Parts- Reality

HJF DOE Review