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Safeguards Workshop October 30, 2008 Moldova, Chusinau Day 2 – Case Study Environmental Management and Mitigation Aspects of Transport Project – Elevated Express in Country X Dmytro Glazkov Case Study Country X is planning to improve its infrastructure in Capital City X

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safeguards workshop october 30 2008

Safeguards WorkshopOctober 30, 2008

Moldova, Chusinau

Day 2 – Case Study

Environmental Management and Mitigation Aspects of Transport Project – Elevated Express in Country X

Dmytro Glazkov

country x is planning to improve its infrastructure in capital city x
Country X is planning to improve its infrastructure in Capital City X
  • Project Counterpart – Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Transport
  • Implementation Entity is a Road Agency in City X
  • Project purpose– construction of a new rapid type of passenger transportation system - Elevated Express at the southwest area of the City of X.
  • Project objective – to provide reliable, fast and safe mode of public transport connecting rail/metro/transit interfaces to enable passengers to move quickly from suburban areas to the city centre and across the city southern regions.
  • Project implementation scheme – Public-Private Partnership
what has happened so far
What has happened so far:
  • City X Read Authority proposed planned location of Elevated Express Rout
  • Group of the State research institutes completed the Feasibility Study of the project presenting economic, technical, environmental and social validity of the project.
  • Local Institute prepared a comprehensive EIA and EMP based on Country X Environmental legislation
  • Separately Foreign Consulting Firm was hired to review EIA/EMP and confirmed that EIA is done up to the standards and is acceptable
  • EIA/EMP was submitted to Ministry of Environment and Local Environmental Authorities for review and granting permission
  • Government of Capital City X made a decision to start the engineering design stage of the project (What are the risks involved in this Decision>)
  • Ministry of Environment and Local Environmental Authorities returned back EIA/EMP to the Project Owners saying this package is not good enough and needs additional analysis.
site selection 3 site routs analyzed and 1 selected
Site Selection – 3 Site Routs Analyzed and 1 selected

Feasibility report initially examines three different route options and presents a justification for the preferred route option/version on the basis of environmental and social factors and constraints. The preferred route is then discussed in detail in terms of an Evaluation of Environmental Impacts (EEI) for each technical discipline.




ST 1



ST 14

ST 2

ST 9

ST 13

ST 7

ST 3

ST 5

ST 11

ST 10

ST 8

ST 4

ST 6

ST 12

The main project parameters from the feasibility study


  • The approved Express alignment begins at a new big development area ST 1, follows through 5 southern city administrative districts, connects with 4 metro stations and ends at the big metro/railway station – ST14.
  • Total length - 26,5 km, of which 19,2 km - elevated, 7,3 km - at ground.
  • Number of stations – 14 (11 – on elevated level, 3 – at ground)
  • The average speed – 32-35 km/hour
  • Total investment costs - US $ 730 mln.
  • Planned technology – LRT (light rail transit)
  • A depot and service station (8 hectares) will also be constructed. The route will cross a number of streets and rivers and a fly-over will be constructed at each crossing.
eia elements
EIA Elements:
  • The review included three main components concerning resources and values:
    • A) Physical resources;
    • B) Ecological resources;
    • C) Economics and human resources;
analysis of physical ecological and econ human resources
Analysis of Physical Ecological and Econ/Human Resources
  • Physical Resources
    • Surface Water
    • Geological Environment
  • Ecological Resources
    • Vegetation
    • Soils
  • Influence on Economics and Human Resources
    • Finance
    • Social Conditions
    • Land Use
    • Transport Infrastructure
    • Utilities Networks
    • Aesthetics
    • Churches and Monuments
    • Ambient Air
    • Noise and Vibration
analyzed set of environmental issues in eia
Analyzed Set of Environmental Issues in EIA:
  • Air emissions and Ambient Air Quality;
  • Ecological Resources;
  • Landscape and Visual Assessment;
  • Noise;
  • Social Economics: cover unemployment, wages, investment, social funding, businesses, housing and district ranking.
  • Cultural Heritage;
  • Soils, Geology & Hydrology;
  • Surface Water;
  • Traffic;
  • Waste Handling;
environmental management plan
Environmental Management Plan
  • Environmental Management Plan (EMP) plan has two main components:
  • 1) Construction period – Environment control or measures for mitigation of short-term or temporary disturbances during construction and monitor their implementation.
  • 2) Operation and maintenance stage - Environment control and management of eventual environmental alterations during operation and maintenance of the system.
mitigation monitoring issues during construction period
MITIGATION & MONITORING Issuesduring Construction Period

Mitigation and Monitoring measures were developed in order to mitigate the impact to the following basic components of the environment and social and economic conditions and monitor their implementation:

  • Motor transportation traffic;
  • Pedestrian traffic and pedestrians safety;
  • Utility networks;
  • Noise level and vibrations;
  • Business activity;
  • Quality of air;
  • Quality of surface waters;
  • Waste Management;
  • Vegetation (Protection of Trees, etc); and
  • Access to churches and monuments;
mitigation monitoring issues during operation period
MITIGATION & MONITORING Issues during Operation Period
  • Mitigation Issues which will be controlled during Operation Period:
    • Air Emissions;
    • Waste Handling/management;
    • Land and soil control;
    • Control over physical impacts;
    • Control over sanitary and epidemiologic condition;
  • Monitoring Issues which will be controlled during Operation Period:
    • Air Emissions – Air Quality (NOx, SOx, CO, Lead, etc);
    • Geological environment and ground water (pollution of ground and underground water with lead, cadmium, heavy metals, etc);
    • Land and soil – Soil Erosion, Heavy Metals, Petroleum Products in soil;
    • Vegetation – survival of plants and trees, % of bare ground, etc.
lets review 5 selected issues
Lets review 5 Selected Issues:
  • Air Emissions;
  • Vegetation;
  • Soil;
  • Noise;
  • Landscape and Visual Assessment;
air emissions selected country x air quality standards maximum allowable concentrations macs
Air Emissions - Selected Country X air quality standards (Maximum Allowable Concentrations - MACs)
Country X Existing Level of Pollutants in the outdoor air of populated areas

Average annual and maximum values of pollutant concentrations according to data obtained from the City X stations of computerized systems for atmospheric air quality monitoring and control that are located in the areas where the “Elevated Express” is expected to run (observation period – 2005.)

  • Explanations:
  • Average annual concentrations of pollutants are expressed in units of maximum allowable average daily concentrations
  • «-» indicates absence of data.

AIR EMISSIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION STAGE The following direct and indirect effects may have an impact on the quality of the air in the area near the LRT:• Direct effect – construction equipment and construction works;• Indirect effect - traffic congestion due to construction works.

List of pollutants emitted to atmospheric air by emitters during depot construction


AIR EMISSIONS DURING OPERATION STAGELinear part No atmospheric pollutant emission occurs when the linear part of elevated express is in operation and the electric multiple-unit train is running.DepotThe major task of depot is to keep the secured rolling stock and facilities in good order, repair and maintain them in due time in accordance with the effective technological processes aiming to improve their reliability in operation. To maintain and repair trains, repair shops and rooms are provided. Auxiliary production units repair and maintain process equipment, buildings, structures, communications systems of the enterprise, satisfy the enterprise compressed air demands.

air emissions mitigation measures
Air Emissions – Mitigation Measures

Construction Stage

1) Development of Traffic Management Plan - will optimally regulate the traffic during construction and decrease pollution

2) Exhaust gases of construction equipment will be monitored in order to meet the local standards during construction, and also controlled by means of regular inspections of vehicles and schedules of maintenance.

3) Mitigation of impact on residential areas (for example, in courtyards and other parks adjoining the residential areas, or on restaurant terraces). through application of standard technologies, including:

• covering of the materials subject to dispersion (at storages or during transportation, and also in dumping areas); and

• watering and cleaning of the dirty streets polluted by construction equipment.

Operation Stage

1) During Operation there will be a regular monitoring on Air Emissions and if any increase is identified mitigation measures will be applied

2 ecological resources vegetation
2) Ecological Resources: Vegetation

During LRT construction some existing vegetation could be removed along the right-of-way. The designed guideway and stations will impact on all the vegetation, as well as the trees planted on the borders of the right-of-way, especially at the access to the stations. Cutting of trees will lead to the inevitable losses of these natural resources.

On some sections, the alignment will go through existing green plantations which are planted in sides of streets and prospects or on their centerline

On these sections, it may be necessary to remove or relocate trees, and replanting them where possible. All of the trees removed will be restored by new plants in the same general areas.

Mitigation Measures:

Construction Stage

Removal of vegetation can be easily mitigated through means of the following measures:

• Removal of existing vegetation: Prior to construction, trees and bushes suitable for removal can be identified. Healthy trees and bushes will be mechanically or manually removed from the construction area and brought for replanting to other areas.

• Protection of trees, which should be kept: Along with the protection of the trees located close to the construction area, some trees within the area of construction also should be kept, if they still can play positive environmental role and this complies with the design conditions.

• Designing within the Elevated Express right-of-way: During the detailed design of the LRT, the areas suitable for tree and bush planting will be identified. These areas will be designed for plantation of the healthy vegetation.

• New vegetation: the landscaping plan for planting of new trees and bushes will be provided.

• Protection of new vegetation and care: Measures will be taken in order to ensure healthy condition of trees and bushes planted along the right-of-way. These measures will include fencing of the planted areas, supply of necessary fertilizers, and provision of an inspection and care program.

Operation Stage

Both retained existing and new planted vegetation shall be monitored.

What are the risks related of replanting trees (especially mature ones) and how to mitigate those risks? What about risk of flogging trees?

3 ecological resources soils
3) Ecological Resources: Soils

During construction, the top layer will be removed and if it meets the sanitary requirements “conventionally clean soils”, it could be used as a cover in other places and possibly returned back to the site.

The results from the ground investigation along the length of the preferred route indicate that the soils contain contaminants at elevated concentrations. The predominant contamination is from the presence of hydrocarbons, in addition to some heavy metals (lead, zinc, nickel, etc).

Mitigation Measures:

Construction Stage

  • Post Construction Site should be undertaken
  • Prevent Spills from Operating Machinery at the site during construction
  • Where contaminated soils are identified, soil treatment/reuse options should be explored where possible to avoid disposal to landfill;
  • Where soil is clean – it could be applied at new sites or reused at other places of Elevated Express
  • A flood risk assessment will be undertaken for the preferred route location.

Operation Stage

The control/monitoring of the top soil includes: control/monitoring of the soil pollution by the chemicals, discharges, sewage, waste; identification of the infertile soils; control over soil reclamation.

Please analyze risk of Flooding and how it will affect project?

4 noise permissible noise levels
4) Noise – Permissible Noise Levels
  • The “permissible noise levels” adopted for day and night and used to judge the predicted noise effects are consistent with guidelines limits given in the current WHO Guidelines.
  • The ‘Technical parameters for rolling stock used for calculations during the development of the design for the Elevated Express’ states the following noise and vibration parameters as follows:
    • Level of noise inside an immobile carriage with all subsystems working (except frictional) + heating system, ventilation, and air conditioning – 65dB
    • Level of noise within the carriage during movement at a speed up to 70 km/h – 78 dB
    • Level of noise inside the carriage during movement at speed up to 70 km/h in a tunnel – 88*1 dB
    • Level of noise outside an unmoving train at a distance of 15 meters while the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems are working – 62+-2 dB
    • Level of noise outside an unmoving carriage, standing at the station, at a distance of 2 meters from the edge of the platform and 1.6 meters above the ground – Not specified
    • Level of noise outside the train from two carriages during movement at a speed of up to 70 km/h at a distance of 15 meters – 78 dB
    • Maximum noise of the movement of passenger doors – 75dB
noise and vibration mitigation
Noise and Vibration Mitigation

During Construction period

During construction the noise level may be increased due to the construction equipment in operation and also due to traffic congestion. Taking into consideration, that the daytime noise level in the city is very high, the civil work will not increase the total noise level in absolute values. The noise linked to construction works will disturb both inhabitants sensitive to noise, and construction workers. In order to avoid the above effects – traffic congestion, and materials handling – some civil works should be carried out during night time in less noise sensitive areas.

The best world practices should be used for noise level and vibration monitoring. These standards, as well as local requirements related to working hours limitation or types of equipment used, should be included in project documentation if practical (i.e., it is necessary to achieve a balance between the inevitable night works and disturbances connected with noise and vibration).

In order to control the noise level and vibration, the construction contract documents should include terms, provisions and criteria related to rated level of noise and vibration, including:

  • Preference should be given to low noise construction techniques, for example hydraulic tools instead of pneumatic, prefabricated materials, concrete batching off-site;
  • The Construction Organization Plan should meet applicable requirements on local rated noise levels and vibration;
  • Regular inspection and maintenance of the equipment, in order to keep in operation noise control parts of the equipment;
  • Construction of temporary noise screens in the areas located close to residential buildings, as well as in places sensitive to noise, wherever required.
  • Moreover, it will be necessary to create a public response service. This service should deal with complaints and, if required, make changes to the schedule of works.
noise and vibration mitigation29
Noise and Vibration Mitigation

Operation and Maintenance Period

For the operational period two types of mitigation are proposed.

  • Noise absorbing screens and;
  • Improved sound insulation of the nearest dwellings.

For the transformer sub-stations, enclosures are proposed. For train movements in the depot, trackside screens are proposed.

It is expected that the depot will not have a significant noise impact, as it is located far from the residential area. It is expected that the ground vibrations caused by the LRT will not impact significantly on adjacent structures.

All rail systems are sources of noise. The noise produced by the LRT using modern vehicles is now lower than the noise of other kinds of transport. The noise will be reduced due to:

    • Absence of joints between rails (welded technologies);
    • Low level of noise produced by the train (new technologies)- less than 83 db.

Rerouting of buses and other transport can act as noise mitigation measure which potentially can decrease the noise level in this part of the city

5 aesthetics landscape and visual assessment
5) Aesthetics, Landscape and Visual Assessment

Construction Period

  • Short-term impact of the project on aesthetics during construction period will be basically connected with handling, operation and storage of the heavy construction equipment, handling and storage of construction materials, and erection of temporary structures required for the civil works and to ensure safe pedestrian movement around the construction zones (scaffoldings, formwork, piles, site fencing, foot paths). The impact of these structures on the landscape is undesirable, but inevitable and of limited duration. These elements are required for project completion in time with required safety.

Operation and Maintenance Period

  • The visual impact of the Elevated Express system during the operation and maintenance phase will be different for different sites. The basic problems will be related to the visual impacts on adjacent structures and open spaces, and the possible incompatibility with the existing town/building infrastructure designs.

Any Risks related to the Operation and Maintenance Period?

5 aesthetics landscape and visual assessment31
5) Aesthetics, Landscape and Visual Assessment

Mitigation and Monitoring Measures:

1) An assessment of the overall landscape and visual effect of this scheme should be undertaken. This will enable the significance of the landscape effects to be fully understood and provide a basis to develop cohesive strategies and contribute to a robust landscape design (both hard and soft elements) to address any likely negative effects.

2) Detailed review of the existing landscaping designs should be undertaken.

3) Steps will be taken to ensure healthy growth of trees and bushes planted in the corridor. The status of any steps already undertaken should be established and progressed to produce a full aftercare programme with operations and timescales listed.

4) Landscape Management Plan (LMP) should be developed. The status of this LMP should be established and progressed to a cohesive plan to ensure ongoing management and longevity of the landscape elements.

5) In terms of arboriculture, it is recommended to develop:

  • Tree Constraints Plan (TCP): arborist for purposes of layout design
  • Arboricultural Implication Assessment (AIA): to identify, evaluate and possibly mitigate effects on existing trees
  • Arboricultural Method Statement (AMS): methodology for implementation of development that has potential to damage a tree
  • Tree Protection Plan (TPP): scale plan showing finalized layout proposals, tree retention and protection measures detailed within AMS

6) One of the most efficient measures for mitigation of negative effects related to above are Public Consultations

7) Application of Modern Construction Standards and Planning Techniques could help in solving/mitigating issues related to Aesthetics and Landscape/Visual issues

task review proposed below emp
Task: Review Proposed below EMP &
  • Identify what is missing in EMP related to proposed above 5 Environmental Aspects: a) Air Emissions; b) Vegetation; c) Soil; d) Noise; e) Landscape and Visual Assessment;
  • Tell us if mitigation measures are appropriate?
  • Propose any different mitigation measures if something is missing or not appropriate?
public hearings
Public Hearings
  • EIA report does not document Public Hearings.
  • Public Hearings which were held were not adequate and little information on Environmental, social and Occupational Health and Safety issues was available publicly
  • Public Input and public Outcry was not incorporated or heard
  • How would you manage public consultations process, especially how would you deal with information disclosure?