Safeguards Workshop October 30, 2008 Moldova, Chusinau Day 2 – Case Study Environmental Management and Mitigation Aspects of Transport Project – Elevated Express in Country X Dmytro Glazkov Case Study Country X is planning to improve its infrastructure in Capital City X
Day 2 – Case Study
Environmental Management and Mitigation Aspects of Transport Project – Elevated Express in Country X
Feasibility report initially examines three different route options and presents a justification for the preferred route option/version on the basis of environmental and social factors and constraints. The preferred route is then discussed in detail in terms of an Evaluation of Environmental Impacts (EEI) for each technical discipline.
The main project parameters from the feasibility study
Mitigation and Monitoring measures were developed in order to mitigate the impact to the following basic components of the environment and social and economic conditions and monitor their implementation:
Average annual and maximum values of pollutant concentrations according to data obtained from the City X stations of computerized systems for atmospheric air quality monitoring and control that are located in the areas where the “Elevated Express” is expected to run (observation period – 2005.)
AIR EMISSIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION STAGE The following direct and indirect effects may have an impact on the quality of the air in the area near the LRT:• Direct effect – construction equipment and construction works;• Indirect effect - traffic congestion due to construction works.
List of pollutants emitted to atmospheric air by emitters during depot construction
AIR EMISSIONS DURING OPERATION STAGELinear part No atmospheric pollutant emission occurs when the linear part of elevated express is in operation and the electric multiple-unit train is running.DepotThe major task of depot is to keep the secured rolling stock and facilities in good order, repair and maintain them in due time in accordance with the effective technological processes aiming to improve their reliability in operation. To maintain and repair trains, repair shops and rooms are provided. Auxiliary production units repair and maintain process equipment, buildings, structures, communications systems of the enterprise, satisfy the enterprise compressed air demands.
1) Development of Traffic Management Plan - will optimally regulate the traffic during construction and decrease pollution
2) Exhaust gases of construction equipment will be monitored in order to meet the local standards during construction, and also controlled by means of regular inspections of vehicles and schedules of maintenance.
3) Mitigation of impact on residential areas (for example, in courtyards and other parks adjoining the residential areas, or on restaurant terraces). through application of standard technologies, including:
• covering of the materials subject to dispersion (at storages or during transportation, and also in dumping areas); and
• watering and cleaning of the dirty streets polluted by construction equipment.
1) During Operation there will be a regular monitoring on Air Emissions and if any increase is identified mitigation measures will be applied
During LRT construction some existing vegetation could be removed along the right-of-way. The designed guideway and stations will impact on all the vegetation, as well as the trees planted on the borders of the right-of-way, especially at the access to the stations. Cutting of trees will lead to the inevitable losses of these natural resources.
On some sections, the alignment will go through existing green plantations which are planted in sides of streets and prospects or on their centerline
On these sections, it may be necessary to remove or relocate trees, and replanting them where possible. All of the trees removed will be restored by new plants in the same general areas.
Removal of vegetation can be easily mitigated through means of the following measures:
• Removal of existing vegetation: Prior to construction, trees and bushes suitable for removal can be identified. Healthy trees and bushes will be mechanically or manually removed from the construction area and brought for replanting to other areas.
• Protection of trees, which should be kept: Along with the protection of the trees located close to the construction area, some trees within the area of construction also should be kept, if they still can play positive environmental role and this complies with the design conditions.
• Designing within the Elevated Express right-of-way: During the detailed design of the LRT, the areas suitable for tree and bush planting will be identified. These areas will be designed for plantation of the healthy vegetation.
• New vegetation: the landscaping plan for planting of new trees and bushes will be provided.
• Protection of new vegetation and care: Measures will be taken in order to ensure healthy condition of trees and bushes planted along the right-of-way. These measures will include fencing of the planted areas, supply of necessary fertilizers, and provision of an inspection and care program.
Both retained existing and new planted vegetation shall be monitored.
What are the risks related of replanting trees (especially mature ones) and how to mitigate those risks? What about risk of flogging trees?
During construction, the top layer will be removed and if it meets the sanitary requirements “conventionally clean soils”, it could be used as a cover in other places and possibly returned back to the site.
The results from the ground investigation along the length of the preferred route indicate that the soils contain contaminants at elevated concentrations. The predominant contamination is from the presence of hydrocarbons, in addition to some heavy metals (lead, zinc, nickel, etc).
The control/monitoring of the top soil includes: control/monitoring of the soil pollution by the chemicals, discharges, sewage, waste; identification of the infertile soils; control over soil reclamation.
Please analyze risk of Flooding and how it will affect project?
During Construction period
During construction the noise level may be increased due to the construction equipment in operation and also due to traffic congestion. Taking into consideration, that the daytime noise level in the city is very high, the civil work will not increase the total noise level in absolute values. The noise linked to construction works will disturb both inhabitants sensitive to noise, and construction workers. In order to avoid the above effects – traffic congestion, and materials handling – some civil works should be carried out during night time in less noise sensitive areas.
The best world practices should be used for noise level and vibration monitoring. These standards, as well as local requirements related to working hours limitation or types of equipment used, should be included in project documentation if practical (i.e., it is necessary to achieve a balance between the inevitable night works and disturbances connected with noise and vibration).
In order to control the noise level and vibration, the construction contract documents should include terms, provisions and criteria related to rated level of noise and vibration, including:
Operation and Maintenance Period
For the operational period two types of mitigation are proposed.
For the transformer sub-stations, enclosures are proposed. For train movements in the depot, trackside screens are proposed.
It is expected that the depot will not have a significant noise impact, as it is located far from the residential area. It is expected that the ground vibrations caused by the LRT will not impact significantly on adjacent structures.
All rail systems are sources of noise. The noise produced by the LRT using modern vehicles is now lower than the noise of other kinds of transport. The noise will be reduced due to:
Rerouting of buses and other transport can act as noise mitigation measure which potentially can decrease the noise level in this part of the city
Operation and Maintenance Period
Any Risks related to the Operation and Maintenance Period?
Mitigation and Monitoring Measures:
1) An assessment of the overall landscape and visual effect of this scheme should be undertaken. This will enable the significance of the landscape effects to be fully understood and provide a basis to develop cohesive strategies and contribute to a robust landscape design (both hard and soft elements) to address any likely negative effects.
2) Detailed review of the existing landscaping designs should be undertaken.
3) Steps will be taken to ensure healthy growth of trees and bushes planted in the corridor. The status of any steps already undertaken should be established and progressed to produce a full aftercare programme with operations and timescales listed.
4) Landscape Management Plan (LMP) should be developed. The status of this LMP should be established and progressed to a cohesive plan to ensure ongoing management and longevity of the landscape elements.
5) In terms of arboriculture, it is recommended to develop:
6) One of the most efficient measures for mitigation of negative effects related to above are Public Consultations
7) Application of Modern Construction Standards and Planning Techniques could help in solving/mitigating issues related to Aesthetics and Landscape/Visual issues