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GREAT LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK (GLTP) AND CONSERVATION AREA (GLTFCA). PURPOSE OF TALK . To provide broad overview of salient ecological and socio-economic issues pertaining to the Great Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area, and Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park . GLTFCA. KEY ISSUES.
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PURPOSE OF TALK • To provide broad overview of salient ecological and socio-economic issues pertaining to the Great Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area, and Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park
KEY ISSUES • PROCESS • PEOPLE • WILDLIFE: Translocation, Fence, “Migration”
GLTFCA • INCLUDES GLTP, INTERSTITIAL AREAS in MOZ, BANHINE NATIONAL PARK, ZINAVE NATIONAL PARK, • As well as Kruger to Canyon Biosphere Reserve to west of KNP, Sengwe corridor in Zimbabwe
KRUGER NATIONAL PARK • 2 million ha • Highly developed infrastructure • Relatively Well Watered, WILDLIFE • Established Management Regime • Residents, live in Staff Villages • Makuleke Region: Contractual Park
LIMPOPO NATIONAL PARK, MOZ • Nearly half of the area is sandveld covered by mopane, ironwood and broadleaf savanna. • Largely waterless in dry season, apart from Shingwedzi and Limpopo rivers • Very little wildlife currently occurs in the area. • No infrastructure • Some 27 000 people live in the Park
GhonarheZhou, Zimbabwe • “Intermediate” stage of development • Current tensions
BANHINE NATIONAL PARK • SPECTACULAR WETLAND SYSTEM • 2000 PEOPLE, SYSTEM OF REGULATED LAND USE,
PROCESS • GLTP- Driven by ngo, donor, political leadership, steering committee • Peace Parks Foundation, German KfW • Ahead of “on-the-ground” process
PROCESS (contd) • People in LNP all but ignored initially • Eg LNP proclaimed, elephant release, fence “cutting” prior to engagement with communities • High level of Publicity, • Belated process of engagement
PROCESS (contd) • “Sanctuary” established • PROGNOSIS:- approx 4-5 year process of engagement, negotiation around ‘voluntary’ resettlement
PEOPLE, LNP • LNP- 27000 people resident • Maize, beans, livestock, woodland products, remittances, migratory labour • Shingwedzi key for people, tourism and wildlife
PEOPLE (contd) • Voluntary resettlement plan • Boundary refinement (zones)
PEOPLE, BANHINE NP • Villages in WOODLAND • Pans and Permanent Floodplain used for drought survival • Strictly Controlled Access, under traditional authority, mistaken for “terra nullius” • Sustainable now and next 10 years or so at reasonable projection, eg wood use within 2 km radius, fields rotated, sanctions on natural products, only 2000 people
WILDLIFE • The Fences • KNP-LNP • KNP-Zimbabwe • KNP-west • LNP-Banhine-Zinave
WILDLIFE (contd) • What Migration??? • Relocation vs gradual colonisation • Water point- Policy 1 • The “Sanctuary” in LNP • Banhine and Zinave:- negotiated introduction of non-dangerous animals
CONCLUDING REMARKS • Addressing people’s needs • Sustainability: Unlikely that most components will be “profitable”. • OPTIONS: GEF, Endowment funding, debt for nature swaps, or what…