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Changing Skill of Libraries and Librarians. Drivers of Change. Shared Resources. eResearch. Information Literacy. Digital Resources. Social Networking/Web 2.0. ebooks. Scholarly Publishing. Hybrid Libraries. Self-Service. Budget Cuts. Convergence of academic services.
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Drivers of Change Shared Resources eResearch Information Literacy Digital Resources Social Networking/Web 2.0 ebooks Scholarly Publishing Hybrid Libraries Self-Service Budget Cuts Convergence of academic services
Dealing with Change Fear of extinction – adapt or die “On the one hand, librarians require the dynamic, ruthless pursuit of new roles if they wish to survive. On the other hand, they require empathy, tireless dedication to a cause, commitment, and a service for free orientation – if not for the survival of librarians, then at least for the benefit of society at large” (Fourie, 2004, p.62) “We live in a post-modern environment in which the traditional concept of an academic library is increasingly becoming something of an anachronism” (Biddiscombe, 2002, p.228-9)
Dealing with Change Go with the flow – but don’t get swept away “Although still intermediaries, [librarians] are moving away from being the traditional facilitator in the library context, but applying the same enabling skills on a broader canvas. They are using these enabling skills in novel ways to bring enquirer and information together” (Biddiscombe, 2000) “the complexity of both the information landscape and the organisational arena demand both breadth and depth in skills and knowledge for jobs that require cross-functional and highly-specialised competencies” (Corrall, 2010, p.584)
Academic Librarians’ Perceptions Beliefs about Core Library functions in 5 years time: • Teacher of information literacy and related skills (82%) • Subject-based information expert in library (74%) • Custodian of print and digital archives (73%) • Administrator dealing with purchasing of info. services (69%) • Manager of IRs and digital information (61%) • Facilitator for e-learning /virtual learning (50%) • Manager of metadata issues (43%) *307 academic librarians responded to survey Source: RIN & CURL (2007) - Researchers’ Use of Academic Libraries and their Services.
Recent Comments The Guardian, March 22nd 2012 – results of a live chat panel re academic librarian’s role • Role of librarian is basically unchanged – support institutions in delivery of research and learning strategies • Libraries are about supporting study, rather than storing books • Librarians must become good marketeers • Relationships & collaboration with academic colleagues paramount • Libraries must demonstrate their value • Communication skills are key • Professional education for librarians is out-of-date quickly • Librarians must challenge negative perceptions of role (Contributors quoted were Simon Bains, Jo Webb, Andy Priestner, Ned Potter, Ann Rossiter)
Teaching • “Librarians teach. [...] the subject of much angst, soul-searching and self-justification by academic librarians [...], this statement would now be accepted almost without argument both within the library world and largely by our colleagues in the wider academic community” (Powis, 2008, p.6) • Corrall (2010) identifies awareness of information literacy and recognition of the teaching role of librarians as two of the key trends influencing the academic librarians’ role
The “Blended Librarian” “We define the “blended librarian” as an academic librarian who combines the traditional skill set of librarianship with the information technologist’s hardware/software skills, and the instructional or educational designer’s ability to apply technology appropriately in the teaching learning process” (Bell & Shank, 2004) Blurring of boundaries between the responsibilities of librarians, IT professionals and other academic support services
Your View... 3 minutes.... • What skills do we need now? • What skills will we need in 5-10 years?
Skills needed Now Skills currently used in role* • Interpersonal Skills (90%) • Customer Service Skills (89%) • ICT Skills (85%) • General Management Skills (73%) • Info Evaluation Skills (72%) • Training Skills (71%) • Info Management Skills (70%) • Online Communication Skills (66%) • Marketing Skills (60%) • Business Skills (53%) • Decision Support Skills (50%) • Teaching Skills (50%) • Cataloguing Skills (47%) • Classification Skills (46%) • Web Publishing Skills (32%) *Sample size 3240. Librarians across all sectors Source:CILIP. Defining our Professional Future, July 2010
Skills needed in 10 years time Skills used a lot or a little more* • Online Communication Skills (88%) • ICT Skills (83%) • Business Skills (81%) • Marketing Skills (78%) • Info Evaluation Skills (72% • Web Publishing Skills (71%) • Info Management Skills (70%) • Fundraising Skills (65%) • General Management Skills (64%) • Customer Service Skills (63%) • Training Skills (63%) • Decision Support Skills (60%) • Teaching Skills (58%) • Interpersonal Skills (50%) *Sample Size 3037-3175. Librarians across all sectors Source:CILIP. Defining our Professional Future, July 2010
Typical Teaching Activities Conroy & Boden, 2007* • On the spot support (93%) • Small group teaching (92%) • Writing training guides (91%) • Delivering presentations (85%) • One-to-one sessions (83%) • Large group sessions (71%) • Staff development (10%) • Online support (5%) • Mentoring (3%) *Sample Size 463 Libraries across all sectors Bewick & Corrall, 2010* • On the spot support (94%) • Writing training guides (93%) • Small group teaching (91%) • One-to-one sessions (90%) • Large group sessions (79%) • Other forms (15%) *Sample Size 82 Subject librarians in UK HE Institutions
Teaching Skills Needed? Library & Information Science Education in Europe: Joint Curriculum Development and Bologna Perspectives, Aug. 2005 It is essential for LIS students: • To be aware of information literacy as a concept • To become information literate themselves • To learn about key aspects of teaching information literacy (Kajberg & Lørring, 2005, p.67).
Teaching Skills Needed? An instructional module for LIS professionals should cover: • Curriculum design and planning • Understanding learners and learning theory • Understanding basic concepts, theories and practice of teaching • Understanding the context for teaching and learning Kajberg & Lørring, 2005
Teaching Skills Needed? ACRL Standards for Proficiencies for Instruction Librarians and Coordinators, 2008 1. Administrative skills 2. Assessment and evaluation skills 3. Communication skills 4. Curriculum knowledge 5. IL integration skills 6. Instructional design skills 7. Leadership skills 8. Planning skills 9. Presentation skills 10. Promotion skills 11. Subject expertise 12. Teaching skills
Reflective Practice “A teaching programme aimed as a preparation for professional practice has [...] to accommodate more than a definitive statement of the subject, it must be an introduction to thinking, asking questions, and interpreting, and should instil the same critical thinking skills that are prerequisites for information literacy” (Foster, 2006, p.492)
Learning to Teach Instructional training not usually a core element of professional education for LIS professionals How skills were developed:* • Trial and error (72%) • On-the-job (59%) • Non-accredited course (31%) • Accredited course (30%) *n=463 librarians across all sectors Boden & Conroy, 2007 (UK) How skills were developed:* • No training (32%) • One or half-day course or seminar (43%) • Weekend course 5% • Module within professional degree programme 15% • Full teaching qual 7% *n=74 academic librarians McGuinness, 2009 (Ireland)
Learning to Teach • “Professional education for librarians has to anticipate changes and developments in professional tasks, roles and expectations, both at the macro level of the profession as a whole and the micro level of different library specialties [...] The challenges facing educators are significant, with some employers and graduates questioning the value of academic preparation for professional practice, while others see both initial and continuing education as a worthwhile investment, but want flexible, tailored provision, not just a standard offer.” ” (Corrall, 2010, p.568)
Reflective Approaches • “Reflective professionals should thus be able to draw on, or contribute to, many sources of evidence, and use them to inform their teaching practices” (Pollard, 2008, p.11) • Blogging • Journal-keeping • Developing a teaching portfolio • Peer evaluation of teaching • Reading the scholarly or professional literature • Publishing articles in the scholarly or professional literature • Presenting at conferences
References • Aharony, N. (2009). Librarians and information scientists in the blogosphere: An exploratory analysis. Library & Information Science Research, 31(3), 174-181 • Anyangwe, E. (2012, March 22nd). Professional development advice for academic librarians. The Guardian. Accessed at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/higher-education-network/blog/2012/mar/22/professional-development-for-academic-librarians • Bell, S.J. & Shank, J. (2004). The blended librarian: A blueprint for redefining the teaching and learning role of academic librarians. College & Research Libraries News, 65(7), 372‐375 • Bewick, L., & Corrall, S. (2010). Developing librarians as teachers: A study of their pedagogical knowledge. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 42 2), 97-110
References • Biddiscombe, R. (2002). Learning support professionals: The changing role of subject specialists in UK academic libraries. Program, 36 (4), 228-35 • Biddiscombe,R. (2000). The changing role of the information professional in support of learning and research. Advances in Librarianship, 23, 63-64 • Biggs, J. B. and Tang, C. Teaching for quality learning at university. (3rd ed.). Open University Press/Mc Graw-Hill Education, 2007 • CILIP. (2010). Defining our Professional Future. Accessed at: http://www.cilip.org.uk/about-us/cilipfuture/Documents/Defining%20Our%20Professional%20Future%20-%20Report%20to%20CILIP%20Council%20July%202010.pdf • Conroy, H. & Boden, D. (2007). Teachers, Trainers, Educators, Enablers: What skills do we need and where do we get them? Presentation given at Umbrella, 29 June 2007. Accessed at: http://www.cilip.org.uk/get-involved/special-interest-groups/personnel/Documents/PTEGTeachersTrainers.pdf
References • Corrall, S. (2010). Educating the academic librarian as a blended professional: A review and case study. Library Management, 31(8/9), 567-593 • Foster, A. E. (2006). Information literacy for the information profession: Experiences from Aberystwyth. Aslib Proceedings, 58(6), 488-501 • Fourie, I. (2004). Librarians and the claiming of new roles: how can we try to make a difference? Aslib Proceedings, 56 (1), 62-74 • Hochstein, S. (2004). You mean you teach? I thought you were a librarian! Using teaching portfolios to think about and improve instruction in academic libraries. In Thomas, D. B., Tammany, R., Baier, R., Owen, E. & Mercado, H. (Eds.). Reflective teaching: A bridge to learning. (pp. 139-144). Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press, 2004
References • Kajberg, L. and Lørring, L. (Eds.). European Curriculum Reflections on Library and Information Science Education. Copenhagen: The Royal School of Library and Information Science, 2005. Accessed at: http://www.library.utt.ro/LIS_Bologna.pdf • McGuinness, C. (2009). Information Skills Training Practices in Irish Higher Education. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 61(3), 262-281 • Pollard, A. Reflective Teaching (3rd ed.). London: Continuum, 2008 • Powis, C. (2008). Towards the professionalisation of practice in teaching. Relay: The Journal of the University College and Research Group (CILIP), 58, 6-9.
References • RIN & CURL (2007). Researchers’ Use of Academic Libraries and their Services: A report commissioned by the Research Information Network and the Consortium of Research Libraries. • Wilson, K. M., & Halpin, E. (2006). Convergence and professional identity in the academic library. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 38(2), 79-91