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Biosafety & Bloodborne Pathogens. Environmental Health & Safety. University of Central Florida. Before we start…. Who needs to know about bloodborne pathogens? What are bloodborne pathogens? What do I need to know about them?. Who needs to know…. Science Laboratory Professors and Staff….

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biosafety bloodborne pathogens

Biosafety & Bloodborne Pathogens

Environmental Health & Safety

University of Central Florida

before we start
Before we start…...
  • Who needs to know about bloodborne pathogens?
  • What are bloodborne pathogens?
  • What do I need to know about them?
who needs to know
Who needs to know….
  • Science Laboratory Professors and Staff….
what are bloodborne pathogens
What are bloodborne pathogens?
  • According to OSHA Standard 1910.1030, "Bloodborne Pathogens" means pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B & C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
topics of discussion
Topics of Discussion
  • Related Diseases
  • Modes of Transmission
  • Emergency Procedures
bloodborne pathogens include
Bloodborne pathogens include:
  • Hepatitis B (HBV)
  • Hepatitis C (HCV)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
hepatitis b hbv
Hepatitis B (HBV)
  • In the United States, approximately 300,000 people are infected with HBV annually, however only a small percentage is fatal. HBV initially causes inflammation of the liver, but it can lead to more serious conditions such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.
hbv cont
HBV (cont.)
  • Symptoms are very much like a mild “flu”, including fatigue, possible stomach pain, loss of appetite, and even nausea. After exposure it can take 1-9 months before symptoms become noticeable.
  • Vaccinations are available.
human immunodeficiency virus hiv
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • AIDS, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is caused by a virus called the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. Once a person has been infected with HIV, it may be years before AIDS actually develops. HIV attacks the body’s immune system, weakening it so that it cannot fight other deadly diseases.
hiv cont
Symptoms of HIV infection can vary, but often include weakness, fever, sore throat, nausea, headaches, diarrhea, a white coating on the tongue, weight loss, and swollen lymph glands.

An infected person may carry the virus for years before symptoms appear.

HIV (cont.)
slide18
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)...
  • Hepatitis C virus, formerly known as "non A-non B", is another pathogen that you need to be aware of if you have occupational exposure to human blood or other potentially infectious materials. Hepatitis C is one of the most common types of hepatitis with up to 1.5% of the population been positive.
hcv cont
HCV (cont.)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been found in all parts of the world where it has been sought. The virus appears to be transmitted most efficiently through parenteral exposure to blood from an infected individual. Common examples of transmission events are: receiving a blood transfusion from an infected source or sharing intravenous drug needles with an infected individual.
comparing hbv and hcv
Comparing HBV and HCV...
  • Like HBV, symptoms of hepatitis C virus can range from no symptoms or flu-like symptoms to jaundice and even death in rare instances. At least 30-50% of patients are totally asymptomatic even with fairly active disease. Also similar to HBV, hepatitis C virus has a carrier state which can lead to chronic infectionand liver disease.
comparing hbv and hcv cont
Comparing HBV and HCV…(cont.)
  • Unlike HBV, there is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C available and immuneglobulin administered after exposure does not appear to be very effective in preventing hepatitis C infection.
modes of transmission hbv and hiv are most commonly transmitted through
sexual contact

sharing of hypodermic needles

from mothers to their babies at/before birth

accidental puncture from contaminated needles, broken glass, or other sharps

Modes of TransmissionHBV and HIV are most commonly transmitted through:
modes of transmission cont
Modes of Transmission (cont.)
  • Contact between broken or damaged skin and infected body fluids, contact between mucous membranes and infected body fluids.
modes of transmission cont24
Modes of Transmission (cont.)
  • Anytime there is blood to blood contact with infected blood or body fluids, there is a slight potential for transmission.
modes of transmission cont25
In most work or laboratory situations, transmission is most likely to occur because of accidental puncture from contaminated needles, broken glass, or other sharps; contact between broken or damaged skin and infected body fluids; or contact between mucous membranes and infected body fluids.Modes of Transmission (cont.)
slide28
Importantly, persons infected with either HIV or HBV may not show any symptoms of illness, but have the potential to spread the disease under certain circumstances (for example, contact with their infected blood).
transmission risk
Transmission Risk...
  • Although the risk of HCV transmission is still being defined, the risk of transmission by the following routes appears to be low: regular household contact situations, sexual contact, and passing the infection from mother to unborn child.
transmission risk cont
Transmission Risk…(cont.)
  • Cases of transmission of HCV to health care workers have occurred through accidental needlesticks, cuts with sharp instruments, and blood splashes to the eye.
transmission risk cont31
Transmission Risk…(cont.)
  • Recent studies have indicated that the risk of transmission for HCV through a parenteral exposure is ~ 1.8% or 18 in 1000, somewhere between HBV and HIV.
transmission risk cont32
Transmission Risk…(cont.)
  • Because there is no treatment or vaccine for HCV, preventing exposures through dedicated use of universal precautions and safe lab practices is the most effective way to reduce transmission of HCV, as well as other BBP’s, in the workplace.
emergency procedures
Emergency Procedures
  • Personal Protection
  • Clean-up Procedures
personal protection
Personal Protection
  • Skin protects from pathogens-cuts, dermatitis, chapping, small cracks allow germs to enter the body
personal protection cont
Personal Protection (cont.)
  • For first aid and cleaning up-USE gloves and have as little contact as possible with blood or body fluids.
personal protection cont38
Personal Protection (cont.)
  • Wash hands thoroughly with antibacterial soap.
slide40
After an accident, access to the clean-up area must be restricted to personnel involve in the clean-up.
slide41
The entire area must be cleaned of all blood and bodily fluids using a disinfectant (such as chlorine bleach diluted in water-10:1).
for epa registered products labeled for use against hiv contact
For EPA registered products labeled for use against HIV contact:

National Antimicrobial Information Network

http://www.ace.orst.edu/info/nain/lists/listc99a.htm

Example:

Product: #25 QUATERNARY AMMONIUM CLEANER-DISINFECTANT

EPA Reg#: 421-434

Manuf: J. F. DALEY INT'L LTD, DBA JAMES VARLEY

Approval Date: 09/08/82

Active Ingredients (%): Alkyl* dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride *(50%; C14, 40%; C12, 10%; C16) 5.0000 %;

Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 2.2500 %; Octyl decyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 3.7500 %; Dioctyl

dimethyl ammonium chloride 1.5000 %

slide43
Use disposable towels to soak up most of the blood and properly dispose of immediately after use.
slide44
Be alert for sharp objects such as broken glassware and used syringes. Do not pick these up-use a brush or a broom and dustpan instead.
slide46
Put all contaminated towels and waste in a sealed color-coded or labeled leak-proof container. Dispose of it as regulated waste.
remember
Remember…..
  • After accident clean-up, wash hands and remove protective clothing before eating, drinking, applying lip balm, or engaging in any other activities that could potentially transmit the blood-borne pathogen.
  • Frequent hand washing is the best defense against spreading infection.
finally
Finally….
  • Protect yourself on and off the job- know the facts.
  • Follow work rules-use gloves and protective clothing.
  • Keep areas clean-report problems immediately to supervisors.
for more information concerning bloodborne pathogens contact
For more information concerning bloodborne pathogens contact:
  • www.healthcentral.com
  • www.Drkoop.com
  • www.hepnet.com
  • www.cdc.gov
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