This week: FRIDAY, Noon to 1:30pm in Latzer Hall at the University YMCA Professor David Stovall, UIC "More of the Same: Arne Duncan, Barack Obama and the Conundrum of National Education Reform"Dave Stovall, Professor of Policy Studies and African American Studies Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has promised to roll out a national educational reform program based on the "turnaround" model developed in Chicago under the guise of Renaissance 2010, a policy aimed at closing new schools and re-opening them with new staff and curriculum. Absent from this "reform" model is the reality of mass-displacement of low-income families by way of free-market rationales centered in the rhetoric of "competition." As education remains high on the priority list of the Obama administration, those who are concerned with developing quality and equitable education still need to ask critical questions of these new "reforms." Received his Ph. D. from EPS UIUC
What kind of society would we have if we could not TRUST our institutions to follow set rules?
Who do you trust? Make a list of 10.What professions are the most trustworthy in your view?
Doctors 85% Teachers 83% Scientists 77% Police Officers 75% Professors 75% Clergy 74% Military Officers 72% Judges 70% Accountants 68% Ordinary person 66% Civil Servants 62% Bankers 62% The President 48% TV Newscasters 44% Athletes 43% Journalists 39% Congress 35% Pollsters 34% Union Leaders 30% Stockbrokers 29% Lawyer 27% Actors 26% Harris Poll harrisinteractive.comPolitical Economy InstitutionsHealth Education Research Religion Military etc.
Declaration of IndependenceHow do these ideas translate? Words into a state. What kind of school is needed? • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. --That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --……laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence.
British political philosopher JOHN LOCKE’S PART OF THE IDEOLOGY FOR REVOLUTION AND POST REVOLUTION NATION BUILDING John Locke (1632-1704) “Two Treatises on Government” Outlines a liberal state (1690) JEFFERSON AGREES LOCKE writes about: 1. Representative Government 2. Inalienable Rights “no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possession” 3. “No man's knowledge here can go beyond his experience.” 4. Reasonable people would follow the laws of civil society, not everyone is as reasonable as needed, so the state is allowed some control over citizens.
INSTITUTIONS THAT INFLUENCE SCHOOLSJEFFERSON WANTED TO LIMIT THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHURCH. Why? What elements of classical liberalism inform this?
RELIGION in Schools MAINSTREAM VIEW Dr. Benjamin Rush (PA) (see Tozer, 47-49) “changed government” now need to change “principles, opinions, and manners” AIMS OF SCHOOLING • Create a more homogeneous population • To have freedom, one needs restraints internalized “BOUNDED LIBERTY” • Grounded in religion “humility, self-denial, and brotherly kindness” • PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR RELIGION IN SCHOOLS
From colonial, Puritan views about children and learning, post-revolutionary America inherited a • Legacy of religious training Benjamin Rush “A Christian cannot fail of being a republican.” (Tozer, 47-49) “without virtue there can be no liberty.” • Legacy of harsh discipline Does not resolve which religions would control the schools….Pan Protestantism is intended, local control.
Jefferson (not majority view): Believes that moral training is needed (family and community norms) Don’t use Bible in schools Stresses discipline and intellectual training in school.
INSTITUTIONS JEFFERSON WANTED TO LIMIT THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHURCH. WHY?IDEOLOGYBELIEF IN REASON AND CONSENT If separation of church and state was part of the move toward a modern state– what would the first public schools (common schools do about the religious character and use of the Bible as a central text in the colonial schools?
What kinds of books were used in the COMMON SCHOOLS?Noah Webster’s American Spelling Book** http://www.merrycoz.org/books/spelling/SPELLING.HTM Webster American Spelling Book Contained: • Protestant Catechism • Moral lessons • Politics • Americanization of spelling English words
Class survey: Do you supportthis law? Yes or No Give the most important reasonfor your response. Law requires moment of silence in Illinois schools Issue date: 10/22/07 Illinois public school students will be required to observe a moment of silence at the beginning of every school day under a new law.
In your view, why did Illinois recently pass a bill to require a moment of silence at the start of the school day? Illinois “Moment of silence” law http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-silence24dec24,1,5677773.story
ILLINOIS SB 1463 – The House and Senate overrode the Governor’s veto. • Sec. 1. In each public school classroom the teacher in charge shall may observe a brief period of silence with the participation of all the pupils therein assembled at the opening of every school day. This period shall not be conducted as a religious exercise but shall be an opportunity for silent prayer or for silent reflection on the anticipated activities of the day.
Supporters say the goal is to give students a bit of peace and quiet to reflect on the day ahead - "to listen to the rustling of leaves, to listen to the chirping of a bird, to listen to the tip-tap of a child walking," said state Rep. Monique Davis.
But critics called the measure an attempt to promote organized school prayer. "It may not mandate prayer, but that's what it's about," said Rep. Lou Lang.
Already a lawsuit against the Moment of Silence Law in Illinois. CHICAGO – 12-2007-When high school freshman Dawn Sherman learned that Illinois had a new law requiring public schools to provide a moment of silence each day for "reflection and student prayer," she was outraged.Not because the law meant lost learning time in her honors math class -- which would be 15 seconds shorter -- but because "it was clear that we're supposed to sit and pray, or sit and watch other people pray," said Dawn, who is an atheist.
Natural Aristocracy “NOT BORN INTO SOCIAL POSITION” “LAY THE AX TO THE PSEUDO ARISTOCRACY”
SCHOOL Jefferson’s EducationPlan for Virginia See Tozer, 38-45Jefferson’s Ideal to EducateCitizens for a Republic PROPOSAL The 4 interrelated tiers and their purpose: 1. Elementary for boys and girls (3 years, basic skills) 3 years of FREE elementary school for both boys and girls who were white • Subject matter: reading, writing, arithmetic, history (Greek, Roman, English, American-- to judge mistakes of the past) *2. Grammar for boys only, up to 6 years, advanced skills and languages) Model already existed as tuition schools for a small group able to afford it. • Languages were at center of curriculum (Greek, Latin, English), advanced math, geometry, geography, and navigation *3. University for some boys (study of science) 4. Self-Education and life-long learning (Libraries, newspapers) “The people are the ultimate guardians of their own liberty.” Difference of opinion leads to inquiry, inquiry leads to truth.
Sorting Machine Model** Locating the Natural Aristocracy was a sorting function of Jefferson’s school plan.
Jefferson sought to break the hold of family privilege (aristocracy) and the power of wealth “does not depend on condition of life in which chance has placed them” Aristocracy born to hold power
Jefferson’s view of the natural aristocracy– elite should be based on virtue and talent (Tozer, 36-38) John ADAMS’ OBJECTIONS Is Jefferson’s educational system the best way to locate leaders? At the time, John Adams argues NO Agrees there are differences in men • BUT CAUTIONS • Many kinds of talents • We should have no aristocracy at all • Any concentration of power is bad.
Today, some talk about a Modern Democratic Theory that adds “Talk-centric” to “Vote-centric”Aim is: Less concentration of power….. Institutions of government We the people….
A stronger democracy would focus on more than just voting. The most distinctive aspects of democracy are….. VIRTUES that combine to create the ability and willingness to question political authority and, to engage in public debate (public reasonableness rather than self-interest, persuasion, compromise) and then make changes in the arrangements of life.
Most distinctive feature of liberal democracy: Citizens need to have virtues that combine to create the ability and willingness to question political authority and to engage in public debate (public reasonableness rather than self-interest, persuasion, compromise). “unalienable rights” “consent of the governed”
Deliberative Democracy“Voice rather than vote is the vehicle of empowerment.” Free and open debate. Who is at the table? 19th Century?? 21st Century??
Right to disagree But can we work out compromises?
Will the “Natural Aristocracy” SERVE THE PUBLIC OR develop SELF-INTERESTS and want to preserve their power and influence? What fights against corruption in a representative government? Disclosure/Transparency Voting the bums out Jefferson’s Natural AristocracyMost Talented—Reason & VirtueEducated…in grammar and university
In politics there are FAMILY LEGACIES: Daleys, Kennedys, Bushes, Adams
EDUCABILITY PLASTICITY POTENTIAL PROGRESS
What was the psychology of learning of Jefferson’s day? Faculty Psychology comes out of colonial school model (Tozer, 42). Mind as a muscle, needs "exercise" and discipline. • Idleness ruins the mind “Don’t be intellectual girly men.” “You’ve got to pump it up” Hans and Frans
Locke’s most famous concept about human nature and learning Not born ready for self-governance. Need EXPERIENCES and EDUCATION.
IDEOLOGY Classical Liberals Like Jefferson adopt John Locke’s view of human nature(Tozer, 30) Humans have the capacity for REASON The idea is that life is not predetermined, but allows for opportunities for balance and hard work based on acting with virtue.. Need EXPERIENCES and EDUCATION.
Why was education limited for women in the Colonial period? IDEOLOGY shaped WOMEN’S position in society and views about education. (Tozer, Chapter 2) • BELIEFS of SCIENCE AND RELIGION WOMEN’S NATURE more emotion, less reason (physically smaller brains, weaker) • BELIEF RELIGIONProtestant view that Adam formed first, and women were responsible for original sin. • BELIEF WOMEN’S ROLE IN PRIVATE SPHERE--duties as wives, mothers, and some role in home production
WOMEN’S EDUCATIONColonial to 1776 • Colonial --Idea of college education would be dismissed. PLACE (family, society PE) AND ABILITIES (views about reason I). Women lower literacy rates than men, 1770, fewer women could write or sign their name (50% of women, 80% of men). • Post Revolution –EDUCATION SEEN AS MORE VITAL for the Republic. Abigail Adams and others sought “a place for learned women” A new democratic ideal which changed society, created divisiveness about slavery, but not about the status of women. New constitution gave some men more rights.
Abigail Adams writes to POST REVOLUTION John Adams, 1776 • Educate girls and women “for the Benefits of the rising Generation” • Distinguish the “new constitution” for its value of “learning and virtue” • Heroes should include learned women • Early education is critical and children’s “first principles” are learned from a mother. (FOR MORE SEE Barbara Solomon, “Chapter 1: Forbidden World” pages 1-13. In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985).Solomon, 13)
IDEAS SOCIAL CHANGES INSPIRED IN POST REVOLUTION AMERICA Led a few educated women to engage with classical liberal ideas outside of their traditional role. • 1776 Prompted Abigail Adams to urge protection for women under the new Constitution. • Outcome: left to STATES, and no vote. • States controlled property rights, marriage, divorce, contracts, etc.
Jefferson and the Education of his own daughter Martha • Reading best literature • Sciences • Equipped to head her own family if needed John Adams told his daughter to study French rather than Latin and Greek typical for boys, would not be reputable for a girl to study Latin and Greek. (If you want to read more—see Barbara Solomon, “Chapter 1: Forbidden World” pages 1-13. In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985).Solomon, 13)
WOEMN were not equal, but Enlightenment Thinking OPENED THE DOOR FOR WOMEN TO CHALLENGE SOME OF THE BARRIERS TO THEIR EQUALITY Some women gained a more liberal education through their families, and some spoke out. Shifts in religion, science, economy made female education more important in upper class colonial society. God was at a distance, humans greater responsibility for their lives. **John Locke’s view of rationality, no distinction based on sex (different from Classical Liberal view) Presence of a few educated women who spoke out
Mary Wollstonecraft wrote The Vindication of the Rights of Women 1792 Read by John and Abigail Adams “The Vindication of the Rights of Women” demanded the same rights as men • Educate boys and girls the same • Give women the right to vote • Open the professions to women “How could women advance without education?” When was this equality achieved in US?
In what year could women attend the University of Virginia (Jefferson’s educational success), the highest ranked public institution in the state?
Million dollar question In what year could women attend the University of Virginia (Jefferson’s educational triumph) the highest ranked public institution in the state? • A) 1966 B) 1954 • C) 1971 D) 1870
B) 1954 C) 1971
1971 Court orders University of Virginia to admit women Before 1975, how did women fare regarding access to higher education? Key court case and legislation.