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The Great War 1914-1918

The Great War 1914-1918. By Randy B. World War 1 Causes.

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The Great War 1914-1918

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  1. The Great War 1914-1918 By Randy B

  2. World War 1 Causes • World War I was immediately precipitated by the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist in 1914. Germany invades Belgium then England declared war on Germany because England was allied with Belgium. Germany declared war on Russia because Russia was allied with Serbia. Then Germany declared war on France because France was allied with England.

  3. In the first battle (Sept. 6-9, 1914) the German advance on Paris was halted at the Marne by the Allies. The German retreat that followed signified the abandonment of the Schlieffen plan. According to the plan, Germany could solve the problem of war on two fronts by first defeating France in a lightning campaign and then throwing its full weight against Russia. The Battle Of The Marne

  4. THE BATTLE OF YPRES • The second battle began on Apr. 22, 1915, when the Germans, using poison gas for the first time in the war, launched another massive assault on the salient at Ypres. The attack was unsuccessful and was broken off in May.

  5. The Lusitania • The Lusitania was a British cargo and passenger ship that was torpedoed and sank due to German submarine activity in May of 1915. The Lusitania shows evidence that she may have been torpedoed a second or even a third time - but the second, most destructive. The ship sank within twenty minutes of when she was hit and took with her 1,201 people - and left only 764 to be saved by those who responded to her SOS. This was considered most dramatic incident in the conflicts over German submarine warfare.

  6. The Battle Of Verdun • The German attack on Verdun started on 21st February 1916. A million German troops, led by Crown Prince Wilhelm, faced only about 200,000 French defenders. The following day the French was forced to retreat to their second line of trenches. Of the 330 infantry regiments of the French Army, 259 eventually fought at Verdun.

  7. The German Advance On Verdun • The German advance was brought to a halt at the end of February .The Germans advanced 3km before they were stopped in front of the area around Mort Homme Hill. The French held this strategic point until it was finally secured by the Germans on 29th May, and Fort Vaux fell on 7th June, after a long siege. Further attacks continued throughout the summer and early autumn.

  8. The French Counter-Attack Of Verdun • The French now counter-attacked and General Charles Mangin became a national hero when the forts at Douaumont and Vaux were recaptured by 2nd November, 1916. Over the next six weeks the French infantry gained another 2km at Verdun. • Verdun, the longest battle of the First World War, ended on the 18th December. The French Army lost about 550,000 men at Verdun. It is estimated that the German Army suffered 434,000 casualties. About half of all casualties at Verdun were killed.

  9. The Battle Of Somme • July 1 - November 28, 1916 .The Battle of the Somme was planned as a joint French and British operation. The idea originally came from the French Commander-in-Chief, Joseph Joffre and was accepted by General Sir Douglas Haig, the British Expeditionary Force. Haig used 750,000 men (27 divisions) against the German front-line (16 divisions).

  10. The Somme Offensive • Germans were able to exploit their good defensive positions on higher ground when the British and French troops attacked at 7.30 on the morning of the 1st July. The BEF suffered 58,000 casualties (a third of them killed), therefore making it the worse day in the history of the British Army. With the winter weather deteriorating Haig now brought an end to the Somme offensive. Since the 1st July, the British had suffered 420,000 casualties. The French lost nearly 200,000 and it is estimated that German casualties were in the region of 500,000.

  11. The Battle Of Jutland • The Battle of Jutland fought between the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet in 1916, was the largest surface naval battle of all time, the only major fleet action of World War 1. In May 1916 Scheer decided that he would take on the might of the British Navy. As a bait, Scheer ordered Admiral Franz von Hipper and 40 ships to begin a sweep along the Danish coast. When he heard the news, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, who was at Rosyth, gave instructions for the Grand Fleet to put to sea.

  12. English Joining up • Meanwhile, Admiral Sir David Beatty, and 52 ships had left Scarpa Flow in the Orkneys and were on the way to join Admiral Jellicoe and the Grand Fleet. Beatty came into contact with Admiral Franz von Hipper and his 40 ships. The two fleets opened fire at a range of 15 kilometers. The hazy visibility created problems for both sides but the position of the sun gave a significant advantage to the German captains.

  13. Losses Of The Battle Of Jutland • The British Navy lost 3 battle cruisers, 3 cruisers and 8 destroyers (6,100 casualties). • The German Navy lost 1 battleship, 1 battle cruiser, 4 light cruisers and 3 destroyers (2,550 casualties).

  14. The Zimmerman Note • The Zimmerman note was a agreement with Mexico in their involvement in WW1. On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona.

  15. The U.S. Entrance In WW1 • When war erupted in 1914, the United States attempted to remain neutral and was a proponent for the rights of neutral states. In 1916 President Wilson took a stronger stance toward foreign affairs by increasing the size of the military and issuing a warning to the Germans. The Germans responded by temporally ceasing submarine warfare until 1917.

  16. Why Did The U.S. Enter • In an attempt to eliminate the threat of American involvement in Europe, Foreign Minister Alfred Zimmerman attempted to provoke Mexico and Japan into attacking the United States with the promise of German assistance after the European front was conquered. Due primarily to submarine warfare and the Zimmerman note, President Wilson asked Congress for permission to go to war, and on April 6, 1917, Congress officially declared it.

  17. The Battle Of Ypres Again • The battle of Ypres, began on July 31, 1917, and continued until November. The British sought to break the German line, but, bogged down by mud and rain, they advanced only 5 mi at a cost of 310,000 lives. The British and the French was attacked by mustard gas and chlorine gas during this battle.

  18. Its Finally over • November 11, 1918 World War I ends. Central Powers are forced to annul the Brest-Litovsk Treaty. Which means terms of the armistice between Germany and the Allied powers. Russia suffered massive land loss due to this treaty.

  19. Aftermath of World War 1

  20. THE END

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