Controls many body functions exerts control by releasing special chemical substances into the blood called hormones Hormones affect other endocrine glands or body systems.
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exerts control by releasing special chemical substances into the blood called hormones
Hormones affect other endocrine glands or body systems
Derives its name from the fact that various glands release hormones directly into the blood, which in turn transports the hormones to target tissues via ducts.The Endocrine System
to the unusual:
ThyrotoxicosisThe Endocrine System
Pituitary gland: a small gland located on a stalk hanging from the base of the brain - AKA
“The Master Gland”
Primary function is to control other glands.
Produces many hormones.
Secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus in the base of the brain.The Endocrine System
structurally and functionally
each area has separate types of hormone production.
The two segments are:
produces oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
produces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
growth hormone (GH)
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)The Endocrine System
Primarily regulates other endocrine glands
rarely a factor in endocrinological emergencies
TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to release its hormones, thus metabolic rate
Growth hormone (GH)
consumption of fats as an energy source
ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones
FSH & LH stimulates maturation & release of eggs from ovary.The Endocrine System
lies in the anterior neck just below the larynyx.
Two lobes, located on either side of the trachea, connected by a narrow band of tissue called the isthmus.
Sacs inside the gland contain colloid
Within the colloid are the thyroid hormones:
When stimulated (by TSH or by cold), these are released into the circulatory system and the metabolic rate.
“C” cells within the thyroid produce the hormone calcitonin.The Endocrine System
Inadequate levels of thyroid hormones = hypothyroidism, or Myxedema.
altered mental status
oily skin and hair
TX: replacement of thyroid hormone.The Endocrine System
Signs and symptoms:
Long term hyperthyroidism:
bulging of the eyeballs (picture Barbara Bush)
In severe cases - a medical emergency called thyrotoxicosis can result.The Endocrine System
a key gland located in the folds of the duodenum
has both endocrine and exocrine functions
secretes several key digestive enzymes
Islets of Langerhans
specialized tissues in which the endocrine functions of the pancreas occurs
include 3 types of cells:
alpha ( )
each secretes an important hormone.The Endocrine System
When blood glucose levels fall, cells the amount of glucagon in the blood .
The surge of glucagon stimulates the liver to release glucose stores (from glycogen and additional storage sites).
Also, glucagon stimulates the liver to manufacture glucose -
gluconeogenesis.The Endocrine System
Insulin the rate at which various body cells take up glucose. Thus, insulin lowers the blood glucose level.
Insulin is rapidly broken down by the liver and must be secreted constantly.
Delta Cells () produce somatostatin, which inhibits both glucagon and insulin.The Endocrine System
One at a time…
accounts for 95% of adrenal cortex hormone production
the level of glucose in the blood
Released in response to stress, injury, or serious infection - like the hormones from the adrenal medulla.The Endocrine System
A serious electolyte imbalance will occur due to the potassium excretion by the kidney, which results in hypokalemia.
Sodium can also be retained by the kidney, resulting in hyponatremia.
usually results from a tumor - TX? Removal of tumor.The Endocrine System
the endocrine glands associated with human reproduction.
Female ovaries produce eggs
Male gonads produce sperm
both have endocrine functions.
located in the abdominal cavity adjacent to the uterus.
Under the control of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary they manufacture
protesteroneThe Endocrine System
located in the scrotum
produce sperm for reproduction
manufacture testosterone -
promotes male growth and masculinization
Controlled by anterior pituitary hormones FSH and LH.The Endocrine System
Glucose (dextrose) is a simple sugar required by the body to produce energy.
Sugars, or carbohydrates, are 1 of 3 major food sources used by the body.
The other 2 major food sources are
Most sugars in the human diet are complex and must be broken down into simple sugars: glucose, galactose and fructose - before use.The Endocrine System
As simple sugars, these are absorbed from the GE system into the body.
More than 95% enter the body as glucose.
To be converted into energy, glucose must first be transmitted through the cell membrane. BUT - the glucose molecule is large and doesn’t readily diffuse through the cell membrane.The Endocrine System
Facilitated diffusion - doesn’t use energy. The carrier protein binds with the glucose and carries it into the cell.
The rate at which glucose can enter the cell is dependent upon insulin levels.
Insulin serves as the messenger - travels via blood to target tissues.
Combines with specific insulin receptors on the surface of the cell membrane.The Endocrine System