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Telephone Talk: Effects of Vocabulary and Timing on Telephone Conversations Using Synthesized Speech. Elizabeth K. Hanson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP University of South Dakota Vermillion, SD Caroline Sundheimer, M.A., CFY-SLP Sunshine Speech-Language Therapy Services Phoenix, AZ

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telephone talk effects of vocabulary and timing on telephone conversations using synthesized speech

Telephone Talk: Effects of Vocabulary and Timingon Telephone Conversations Using Synthesized Speech

Elizabeth K. Hanson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP

University of South Dakota

Vermillion, SD

Caroline Sundheimer, M.A., CFY-SLP

Sunshine Speech-Language Therapy Services

Phoenix, AZ

ISAAC - Montréal, Québec, Canada - 2008

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

Tina Lombardi

Richardson Independent School District

Dallas, TX

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

hello hello is anybody there
Hello? Hello!Is anybody there?
  • Problems using SGD to talk on the phone
    • Limited telephone bandwidth decreases intelligibility (Milchard & Cullington (2004) )
    • Synthesized voice intelligibility worse over the telephone than sound field (Drager, Hustad, and Gable, 2004)
    • Timing issues…
  • Results:
    • Hang up
    • Rudeness
    • Unsuccessful call

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

hello hello is anybody there4
Hello? Hello!Is anybody there?

“The telephone is perhaps my greatest source of frustration.”

Colin Portnuff, 2007

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

attitudes studies
Attitudes Studies
  • Japan study
  • Content of initial message
    • (e.g., caller can’t speak and is using synthesized speech)
  • Timing of message delivery
    • (e.g., 3 sec. delay)
  • Results:
    • Initial explanation at start improved attitudes toward caller
    • Presence or absence of delay - no effect

Nakamura, Arima, Sakamoto, & Toyota (1993)

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

attitudes studies6
Attitudes Studies
  • Japan/Wisconsin study
  • Content of initial message
    • (e.g., brief introduction and request for info)
  • Results (comparing locations):
    • More positive attitudes in Wisconsin
    • Fewer hang-ups in Wisconsin
    • Explanatory message decreased # hang-ups in Japan

Nakamura, Vanderheiden, & Smith (1993)

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

strategic competence
Strategic Competence

Light (1989b, 1989)

  • Using a “floorholder” message
    • Person using SGD starts with an explanatory message to hold the conversational floor
    • Cues communication partner to wait

Bedrosian, et al. (2003)

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

purpose
Purpose
  • Investigate impact of strategic message and delay times when using synthesized speech during telephone calls.

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

methods
Methods

USD IRB#100-07-002-Telephone Talk: Effects of Strategic

Communication Messages Using Synthesized Speech

  • 100 telephone calls to businesses advertising in Yellow Pages
  • Randomly selected
  • Asked for business hours
  • Calls made during the day, to avoid contacting minors
  • Calls audiotaped for review & reliability

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

technology
Technology
  • Telephone:
    • Uniden landline telephone - speaker mode
    • LG cellular telephone - speaker mode
  • “MT4” SGD by DynaVox Systems, LLC
    • Voice: DECtalk®“Betty”
    • Speech rate: “30”
    • Volume: “70”

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

conditions
Conditions
  • Explanation, no delay
    • “Please wait, I’m using a computer to talk. What are your hours? …”
  • No explanation, no delay
    • “What are your hours? …”
  • Explanation, delay
    • 3-second delay“Please wait, I’m using a computer to talk…”
  • No explanation, delay
    • 3-second delay“What are your hours?”

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

dependent variable
Dependent Variable
  • Successful call =
    • obtained business hours
  • Unsuccessful call =
    • did not obtain business hours

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

discussion
Discussion
  • Absence of explanatory message and or delayed start hurts success rate
  • Starting call immediately enhances chance of success
  • Starting with explanatory message enhances chance of success

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

clinical implications
Clinical Implications
  • Teach strategic use of floorholder
  • Timing issue difficult to control
  • Effect of hostility and hang-ups on motivation to use telephone

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

limitations
Limitations
  • Different phones
  • Different regions
  • DECtalk® still used but not current

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

future
Future
  • Content of floorholder…
    • Informative
    • Instructional
    • Personalized
  • Stakeholder involvement
  • Modify SGD technology?

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

references
References
  • Bedrosian, J.L., Hoag, L.A., & McCoy, K.F. (2003). Relevance and speed of message delivery trade-offs in augmentative and alternative communication. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 800-817.
  • Drager, K.D.R., Hustad, K.C., & Gable, K.L. (2004). Telephone communication: Synthetic and dysarthric speech intelligibility and listener preferences. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 20(2), 103-112.
  • Light, J. (1988). Interaction involving individuals using augmentative and alternative communication systems: State of the art and future directions. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 54(2), 66-82.
  • Light, J. (1989b). Toward a definition of communicative competence for individuals using augmentative and alternative communication systems. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5(2), 137-144.
  • Milchard, A. J., & Cullington, H. E. (2004). An investigation into the effect of limiting the frequency of bandwidth of speech on speech recognition in adult cochlear implant users. International Journal of Audiology, 43, 356-362.
  • Nakamura, K., Arima, M., Sakamoto, A., & Toyota, R. (1993). Telephoning with a voice output device: Listener reactions. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 9, 251-258.
  • Nakamura, K., Vanderheiden, G.C., & Smith, R.O. (1993). Attitudes and impressions toward receiving phone calls made with a voice output device in the United States and Japan. Technology and Disability, 2(2), 71-80.
  • Portnuff, C. (2007). AAC: A user’s perspective. Webcast. Retrieved July 3, 2007 from http://www.aac-rerc.com/pages/news/Portnuff_webcast.htm

Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.