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Telephone Talk: Effects of Vocabulary and Timing on Telephone Conversations Using Synthesized Speech

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  1. Telephone Talk: Effects of Vocabulary and Timingon Telephone Conversations Using Synthesized Speech Elizabeth K. Hanson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP University of South Dakota Vermillion, SD Caroline Sundheimer, M.A., CFY-SLP Sunshine Speech-Language Therapy Services Phoenix, AZ ISAAC - Montréal, Québec, Canada - 2008

  2. Acknowledgements Tina Lombardi Richardson Independent School District Dallas, TX Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  3. Hello? Hello!Is anybody there? • Problems using SGD to talk on the phone • Limited telephone bandwidth decreases intelligibility (Milchard & Cullington (2004) ) • Synthesized voice intelligibility worse over the telephone than sound field (Drager, Hustad, and Gable, 2004) • Timing issues… • Results: • Hang up • Rudeness • Unsuccessful call Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  4. Hello? Hello!Is anybody there? “The telephone is perhaps my greatest source of frustration.” Colin Portnuff, 2007 Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  5. Attitudes Studies • Japan study • Content of initial message • (e.g., caller can’t speak and is using synthesized speech) • Timing of message delivery • (e.g., 3 sec. delay) • Results: • Initial explanation at start improved attitudes toward caller • Presence or absence of delay - no effect Nakamura, Arima, Sakamoto, & Toyota (1993) Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  6. Attitudes Studies • Japan/Wisconsin study • Content of initial message • (e.g., brief introduction and request for info) • Results (comparing locations): • More positive attitudes in Wisconsin • Fewer hang-ups in Wisconsin • Explanatory message decreased # hang-ups in Japan Nakamura, Vanderheiden, & Smith (1993) Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  7. Strategic Competence Light (1989b, 1989) • Using a “floorholder” message • Person using SGD starts with an explanatory message to hold the conversational floor • Cues communication partner to wait Bedrosian, et al. (2003) Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  8. Purpose • Investigate impact of strategic message and delay times when using synthesized speech during telephone calls. Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  9. Methods USD IRB#100-07-002-Telephone Talk: Effects of Strategic Communication Messages Using Synthesized Speech • 100 telephone calls to businesses advertising in Yellow Pages • Randomly selected • Asked for business hours • Calls made during the day, to avoid contacting minors • Calls audiotaped for review & reliability Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  10. Technology • Telephone: • Uniden landline telephone - speaker mode • LG cellular telephone - speaker mode • “MT4” SGD by DynaVox Systems, LLC • Voice: DECtalk®“Betty” • Speech rate: “30” • Volume: “70” Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  11. Conditions • Explanation, no delay • “Please wait, I’m using a computer to talk. What are your hours? …” • No explanation, no delay • “What are your hours? …” • Explanation, delay • 3-second delay“Please wait, I’m using a computer to talk…” • No explanation, delay • 3-second delay“What are your hours?” Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  12. Dependent Variable • Successful call = • obtained business hours • Unsuccessful call = • did not obtain business hours Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  13. Results

  14. Results

  15. Results

  16. Discussion • Absence of explanatory message and or delayed start hurts success rate • Starting call immediately enhances chance of success • Starting with explanatory message enhances chance of success Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  17. Clinical Implications • Teach strategic use of floorholder • Timing issue difficult to control • Effect of hostility and hang-ups on motivation to use telephone Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  18. Limitations • Different phones • Different regions • DECtalk® still used but not current Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  19. Future • Content of floorholder… • Informative • Instructional • Personalized • Stakeholder involvement • Modify SGD technology? Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  20. References • Bedrosian, J.L., Hoag, L.A., & McCoy, K.F. (2003). Relevance and speed of message delivery trade-offs in augmentative and alternative communication. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 800-817. • Drager, K.D.R., Hustad, K.C., & Gable, K.L. (2004). Telephone communication: Synthetic and dysarthric speech intelligibility and listener preferences. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 20(2), 103-112. • Light, J. (1988). Interaction involving individuals using augmentative and alternative communication systems: State of the art and future directions. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 54(2), 66-82. • Light, J. (1989b). Toward a definition of communicative competence for individuals using augmentative and alternative communication systems. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5(2), 137-144. • Milchard, A. J., & Cullington, H. E. (2004). An investigation into the effect of limiting the frequency of bandwidth of speech on speech recognition in adult cochlear implant users. International Journal of Audiology, 43, 356-362. • Nakamura, K., Arima, M., Sakamoto, A., & Toyota, R. (1993). Telephoning with a voice output device: Listener reactions. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 9, 251-258. • Nakamura, K., Vanderheiden, G.C., & Smith, R.O. (1993). Attitudes and impressions toward receiving phone calls made with a voice output device in the United States and Japan. Technology and Disability, 2(2), 71-80. • Portnuff, C. (2007). AAC: A user’s perspective. Webcast. Retrieved July 3, 2007 from http://www.aac-rerc.com/pages/news/Portnuff_webcast.htm Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

  21. Results

  22. Results