Second Chapter Soil tillage machine Dr. Geng Duanyang Telephone：0533-2760314 13668641238 EMAIL：email@example.com QQ: 530671341
Ⅰ、Introduction Ⅱ、The nature of soil physics Ⅲ、The construction and Principle of the furrow plow Ⅳ、 The construction and Principle of the rotary tiller Second Chapter Soil tillage machine
1、Purpose 2、Farming methods 3、The technical requirements for the Agriculture and farming machinery 4、The type of farming machinery Ⅰ、 Introduction
Arable land is in agricultural production Datian the most fundamental and important element of the work. Its purpose is cultivated in the traditional farming system and double deduction through deep soil, the stubble of crops, pests and diseases, as well as the destruction of topsoil deep tillage, which has been a long time to resume the bottom of the soil surface to turn to in order to facilitate the elimination of miscellaneous grass and plant diseases and insect pests and improve crop growth environment. 1、 Purpose
Conventional tillage，which is intensive method In the process of crop production by mechanical plowing, harrow row, such as pressure and composition of the soil tillage system. Reduced tillage Based on conventional farming to reduce the number and intensity of soil tillage as a soil conservation farming systems. 50's in the Soviet Union to promote farming Maltsev, is the use of non-wall deep plow tillage, but also are less tillage. 60 when the U.S. is also developing the farming method. 2、 Farming methods
70's Heilongjiang Province in China has also conducted a deep tillage method of testing and promotion; 80 in southern China during the rice cultivation area is too small to test and promote law and supporting the development of their agricultural. Zero tillage That is, remove the soil tillage, the use of no-tillage planter in crop stubble for seeding the surface directly, or on crop straw and stubble for direct seeding after a farming methods. . 2、 Farming methods
Conversation farming Carried out on the soil surface that is porous, low-tillage, to prevent or reduce evaporation of soil moisture for a class of policy holders of farming systems Joint farming Operating machines that work in the same state or through the replacement of working parts of a song once completed, fertilization, stubble cover, ridge, planting, spraying operations, such as farming methods. 2、 Farming methods
Good soil and coverage performance Good performance of the pulverizer The deep of tillage should be uniform Avoid the re-cultivation, cultivation leakage Meet the requirements for ridge dammer 3、 The technical requirements for the Agriculture and farming machinery
4、The type of farming machinery furrow plow disk plough Farming machinery Plow tillage Disk harrow Tooth harrow Roller harrow Paddy harrow, etc. Preparation machinery rotavator Boat driver boat-tractor Straw machine traction Driven
4、The type of farming machinery Furrow plowapplication of the oldest and most mature technology, the operating range of the most widely, Furrow plow spade plow through the songs of the cutting face of the soil, pulverizer and buckle over the realization of land operations.
4、The type of farming machinery Disk plough is a spherical disk plow parts as farming machinery, it is mandatory to rely on the weight of dead, buried the performance worse than the spade-type plow, soil friction small, strong ability to cut off the weeds, could be applied to land reclamation, soil re-stick operation,but turned weak mattress and cover,the higher the price.
4、The type of farming machinery The process of the disk plough
4、The type of farming machinery wedge-shaped share, also known as deep digging plough.Glaridoglanis working parts of a shovel-shaped deep-song, after the beams installed in the rack, the chisel-shaped teeth in the soil using pressure fragmentation squeeze the soil tillage plow pan, there is no ability to turn mattress.
4、The type of farming machinery According to the different requirements of agricultural production, changes in natural conditions, power equipment, etc., furrow plow sent in the form of modern birth to some new type of plow features: a two-way plow, plow rack, amplitude base plow, plow roller, high-speed plows, etc.
4、The type of farming machinery plow roller
4、The type of farming machinery Characteristics: Production are particularly vulnerable, for the convenience, as long as the change in plow machine direction and angle can be.
4、The type of farming machinery Traction disk harrow Flying disk harrow
4、The type of farming machinery Suppression-type spring-tooth harrow
4、The type of farming machinery Roller harrow
4、The type of farming machinery Rotary Series - Horizontal and Vertical Rotary Rotary
1、The physics of soil 2、The dynamic properties of soil Ⅱ、 The nature of soil physics
1、 The physics of soil The main soil physical and mechanical properties of the following aspects： • volume weight • Humidity（which is Watercontent） Absolute humidity: Relative Humidity: q’——Soil weight after drying q——The weight of natural soil Impact: W ↑,hard mattress broken soil, the land resistance ↑ W ↓,mattress into soil, the hard crushing resistance ↑. Dryland farming for the humidity of 40 ~ 60%. W——Relative humidity of the soil Wn——Field capacity
1）Soil and the friction coefficient between metal 2）Firmness of the soil (also known as penetration resistance) 3）Soil strength 4）Soil shear strength 5）Soil cohesion and adhesion 6）Soil tillage resistance 2、 The dynamic properties of soil
To overcome the working parts in the work of farming machinery produced by the surface soil and the friction between metal, consumed about half of tractor power. Friction force F is usually calculated by the following formula: F＝fN f—Friction coefficient; N—Positive pressure. 1） Soil and the friction coefficient between metal
2） Firmness of the soil / penetration resistance When the compression of non-compacting soil to the volume of indentation 1cm3 force required as the unit of pressure strength q0 (kgf/cm3). When a certain cross-section shape (round, conical, etc.) of the plunger pressed into the soil, the depth of sag h0, the role of soil as the soil of an average pressure of p0 firmness p0＝q0 h0 （kgf／cm2） Bekker Model ： P——Firmness of the soilb ——Soil plate width Kφ ——Internal friction of soil deformation modulus Kc ——Deformation modulus of soil cohesion Z ——Depth of soil subsidencen ——Soil deformation index
3） Soil strength • Definition Under certain conditions the ability to resist external force. • Factors: soil composition, texture and environmental conditions. The soil strength and adhesion to link equipment with Moore - Coulomb's law to establish a model of tractor adhesionby Micklethwaite
Pφ——The largest soil adhesion to the vehicle F——Adhesive force of soil c——Area of the ground wheel φ——Soil internal friction angle G——normal load 3） Soil strength
4）Soil shear strength Soil components in the work of farming machinery (such as the plow, shovel row, etc.) under the shear failure often occurs, the shear stress in general subject to Coulomb's Law:
τ—Shear stress ； σ—Surface shear stress of the normal pressure (normal stress) ； c —Adhesive force unit is the same combination of inter-particle forces; tgφ—Between the soil and the soil friction coefficient, which is also called the internal friction coefficient of the soil; φ—Internal friction angle of soil. In general, soil shear strength and soil particle size distribution, soil density, moisture-related. 4）Soil shear strength
Soil with the metal of the adhesion between the contact surfaces, is almost entirely due to surface tension of water film caused. Therefore, the adhesion with the soil texture, water content, surface roughness of the materials and so on. Mechanical work of the soil surface of arable land along the slip resistance T=F+F′=μN+μ′N′A′ 5） Soil cohesion and adhesion
μ——Soil on the steel friction coefficient N——Role in the work of the Law on the surface to the load μ′——Attachment coefficientN′——Sorption by the water film resulting from load A′——The area of water film adsorption 5） Soil cohesion and adhesion When the friction and adhesion than cohesion and internal friction of soil, the tools will work the surface of clay. Work surface clay, will not only deteriorate the quality of farming, and the resistance will increase traction.
Sticky by lowering resistance techniques and methods ——Note the gas or liquid ——Vibration method ——Electro-osmotic method (that is, to increase soil and soil components touch the surface of the water film thickness between) 5） Soil cohesion and adhesion
——Surface modification (changing the soil components touch the surface of the material nature of the work) ——Reshaping the surface (to reduce the actual contact area with soil so that water film interface or the formation of discontinuous stress concentration in order to reduce the adhesion resistance) ——Biomimetic Method / (change in Touch Bionics modified soil surface coating) 5） Soil cohesion and adhesion
To determine ease of soil tillage, soil tillage is often used resistance Kt, kN/cm2 or kPa. However, the size of Kt values and not only the physical properties of soil, but also a large extent depend on the structure of plow (plow surface and small before the plow surface and shape of geometric parameters, the degree of Plowshare blunt sharp, and the availability of re-plow colter, etc.) and tillage speed. Space in general can be measured or linear single-plow dynamometer, 6） Soil tillage resistance
measured with the opposite direction of the plowing component resistance Rx, in this force are not normally installed on the plow plow side, it is an effective resistance Rx. Tillage is an effective soil resistance 6） Soil tillage resistance a—The plow deep of dynamometer plow b—The single-bottom of dynamometer plow
Ⅲ、 The construction and Principle of the furrow plow 1、Types and characteristics of the furrow plow 2、The main components of the furrow plow 3、The principle of double mattress of the furrow plow 4、Linked to colorectal and structure of the furrow plow 5、Special plow
1、 Types and characteristics of the furrow plow Components: Traction bar, plow frame, plow, mechanical or hydraulic lifting body, regulating body, to walk round, safety devices, etc. components. Characteristics: a single point with a tractor mounted, tractor plow have traction only the role of weight bearing from the wheel itself. Traction plow
1、 Types and characteristics of the furrow plow Components: traction frame, spade-type plow, and round / plow composed of round Characteristics: Through the suspension of three planes to fly with the tractor body connection, by the tractor hydraulic lift control, transportation, all bear the weight of the tractor; compact, light weight, good maneuverability. mounted plow
1、 Types and characteristics of the furrow plow Components: Plow, round plow colter, plow frame, suspension and restriction, such as the composition of the deep-round. As shown in Figure 2-5: Characteristics: Simple structure, to adapt to a large range of farming, operating quality, surface formation, pulverizer, review performance and features such as soil moisture in small ditch.
1、 Types and characteristics of the furrow plow Components: Plow plane, flying planes, plow, and round, composed of the end of round. semi-mounted plough Characteristics: The plow with a wide, vertical length, and longitudinal stability control, a load-bearing wheels, traction plow bodies than a simple, light weight, mobile and flexible; More than flying plow plow configuration, stability, good sexual gymnastics.
1.Plow body Components: Plowshare, plow wall, side plow, plow standard, frog,skid grass board, such as extending the board. 2、 The main components of the furrow plow The main body parts of furrow plow has plow body,the small front plow,plow colter, plow frame and so on. Function: Cut soil,broken, turned the soil, so as to achieve coverage of weeds, stubble, and the purpose of loose soil.
2、 The main components of the furrow plow (1) Plowshare Role: dead, cut soil Common form: the hammer and spade-shaped, trapezoid-wah, Plowshare triangle;
2、 The main components of the furrow plow The characteristics of different Plowshare：
2、 The main components of the furrow plow Plowshare material:Plowshare generally hard materials, wear-resistant, high strength and toughness of the material, such as rare earth 65SiMn steel or 65Mn steel, the blade must be heat-treated parts. (2) plow wall Role: together with the Plowshare plow surface, used to flip, broken soil. Forms: integrated, modular, rack-type
Working Principle: Plowshare plow front wall and constitutes a plow shank, work in the plow furrows cut out the side wall of the vertical cutting edge soil; tibial edge or curve line was cambered outward scurve (in favor of trench wall stability), plow the different wall shape up to roll, over, broken, channeling the effect of different soil. Materials and Technology: stamping process, commonly used 65Mn steel or low carbon steel by nitriding processing. In order to facilitate the replacement of commonly used modular wall plow. 2、 The main components of the furrow plow
2、 The main components of the furrow plow （3） Side plow is located after the above of the plowshare, the lateral force and part of the vertical pressure, often plow side flat and knife-shaped, back-end contact with the furrows, the larger the force, easy to wear, and some can be installed to replace the plow heel. When installed side plow, Goudi and groove walls and a certain perspective, so that only the plow and the plow tip heel grounding, an increase of spade plow blade shank of Goudi and the pressure on the groove walls, so that when the plow is always a work species of deep-tillage and tillage increased width of the trend,
so that stability played a side plow tillage width and depth of the role of farming. Installation angle of two levels from Plow and vertical space to ensure space. Materials and processes: requirements plow side wearable, high strength, general use of manganese steel or steel by heat treatment from 45. Heel plow can also be used to create white cast iron. 2、 The main components of the furrow plow