Telecommunications, the Internet, Intranets, and Extranets - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Telecommunications, the Internet, Intranets, and Extranets Chapter 4 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  2. Learning Objectives • Define the term telecommunications and identify and describe the function of the components of a telecommunications system. • Identify and briefly describe three basic data processing strategies, including their advantages and disadvantages. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  3. Learning Objectives • Briefly describe how the Internet works, including alternatives for connecting to it and the role of Internet service providers. • Identify and briefly describe common Internet services. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  4. Learning Objectives • Describe the World Wide Web and the way it works, including the use of Web browsers, search engines, Java, and other Web tools. • Define the terms intranet and extranet and discuss how organizations are using them. • Identify several control and management issues associated with the use of networks. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  5. Telecommunication • Electronic transmission of signals for communications • Telecommunications device is a hardware component that allows electronic communication to occur • Telecommunications medium carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a receiving device Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  6. Elements of a Telecommunications System Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  7. Media Types (1) • Twisted-pair wire cable: Twisted pairs of copper wire • Used in telephone service • Slow transmission • Coaxial cable: Conductor wire is insulated • Faster than twisted-pair • Fiber-optic cable: Thin strands of glass bound together • Uses light beams • Faster than coaxial cable Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  8. Media Types (2) • Microwave transmission: High-frequency radio signal • Must have unobstructed line of sight between sender and receiver • Possible to intervene • Cellular transmission: Divide area into cells • Each cell has a mobile telephone subscriber unit • Possible to intervene • Infrared transmission: Signals as light waves Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  9. Common Wiring and Cabling Types Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  10. Common Telecommunications Devices • Modem: Translates data from digital form into analog form (for ordinary phones) and back • MOdulation and DEModulation • Fax modem: Facsimile device but also a modem • Multiplexer: Allow several signals to be transmitted over the same line • PBX: Manages both voice and data transfer • Switching equipment routes phone calls and messages within the building Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  11. Carriers and Services • Common carriers: Turk Telecom, AT&T • Switched lines • Use switching equipment to connect one phone to another • Switch: Special purpose circuit that directs messages in certain directions • Digital subscriber lines (DSL) • Use existing lines to transmit signals over 500Kbps • Faster Internet access Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  12. Costs, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Several Line and Service Types Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  13. Networks and Distributed Processing • Computer network - communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems. • Centralized processing - processing occurs in a single location or facility. • Decentralized processing - processing devices are placed at various locations. • Distributed processing - computers are placed at remote locations but are connected to each other via telecommunications devices. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  14. Terminal-to-Host Connection • Host computer has the data and the processing power • Dumb terminal contacts host computer for jobs Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  15. File Server Connection • The application and database reside in host computer. • Files transferred as a whole and processed by the user Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  16. Client/Server Connection • Servers have special functionalities (database server, program execution, etc.) • Clients request services from servers • Clients process service results Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  17. Network Types • Local area network (LAN) • Same geographic area • Wired into office buildings (unshielded twisted-pair) • Wide area network (WAN) • Microwave and satellite transmission • Long-distance calls • International network • Transborder data flow • International laws Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  18. A Typical LAN Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  19. A Wide Area Network Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  20. Connecting Computing Devices Using a Home Network Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  21. Communications Software and Protocols • Communications software - provides a number of important functions in a network • Network operating system - controls the computer systems and devices on a network and allows them to communicate with each other • Network management software - a manager can monitor the use of individual computers and shared hardware • Communications protocol - rules and standards that make communications possible Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  22. Common Communications Protocols Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  23. Use and Functioning of the Internet Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  24. Routing Messages Over the Internet Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  25. How the Internet Works • Internet Protocol (IP): Set of rules to pass packets from one computer to another • Transport Control Protocol (TCP): Set of rules to establish and break connections • Internet Protocol Address: Unique address for each computer on the Internet • Static vs. dynamic Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  26. U.S. Top-Level Domain Affiliations Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  27. Three Ways to Access the Internet Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  28. Internet Service Providers • Organizations that provide access to the Internet • Choose based on price, reliability, other features (e-mail address) • Examples: Superonline, E-kolay Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  29. Internet and Telecommunications Services Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  30. Summary of Internet Services (1) • E-mail • Instant messaging • Telnet/SSH • FTP • Chat rooms • Internet phone • Internet video conferencing Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  31. Summary of Internet Services (2) • Shop on the Web: • Auctions: http://www.gittigidiyor.com/ • Distance learning • Music, radio on the Internet Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  32. Common Abbreviations Used in Personal E-Mail Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  33. Two Approaches to Electronic Data Interchange Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  34. Public Network and Specialized Services Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  35. The World Wide Web Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  36. The World Wide Web An Internet service comprising tens of thousands of independently owned computers that work together as one. • Home page: Cover page with text and graphics • Hypertext markup language (HTML): Standard language to describe Web pages Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  37. Several Interesting Web Sites Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  38. Sample HTML Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  39. Search Engine Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  40. Intranets and Extranets Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  41. Intranets and Extranets • Intranet – an internal corporate network built using Internet and WWW standards and products • Extranet - a network that links selected resources of the intranet of a company with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners • Virtual private network - a secure connection between two points across the Internet • Firewall - a device that sits between your internal network and the outside Internet Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  42. Summary of Internet, Intranet, and Extranet Users Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  43. Virtual Private Network Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  44. Net Issues Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  45. Privacy and Security • Cookie: Text that is put on user computer to track Web site usage • Cryptography: Converting a message into a secret code and then back into the message • Encryption • Digital Signature: Who sent the message, did the message change on the way? Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  46. Cryptography Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  47. Summary • Networks - used to share hardware, programs, and databases across the organization. • Internet - transmits data from one computer (called a host) to another. • The Web - a collection of tens of thousands of independently owned computers that work together as one in an Internet service. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition