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Telecommunications, the Internet, Intranets, and Extranets Chapter 4 Learning Objectives Define the term telecommunications and identify and describe the function of the components of a telecommunications system.

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Telecommunications, the Internet, Intranets, and Extranets

Chapter 4

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Learning Objectives

  • Define the term telecommunications and identify and describe the function of the components of a telecommunications system.

  • Identify and briefly describe three basic data processing strategies, including their advantages and disadvantages.

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Learning Objectives

  • Briefly describe how the Internet works, including alternatives for connecting to it and the role of Internet service providers.

  • Identify and briefly describe common Internet services.

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Learning Objectives

  • Describe the World Wide Web and the way it works, including the use of Web browsers, search engines, Java, and other Web tools.

  • Define the terms intranet and extranet and discuss how organizations are using them.

  • Identify several control and management issues associated with the use of networks.

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Telecommunication

  • Electronic transmission of signals for communications

  • Telecommunications device is a hardware component that allows electronic communication to occur

  • Telecommunications medium carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a receiving device

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Elements of a Telecommunications System

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Media Types (1)

  • Twisted-pair wire cable: Twisted pairs of copper wire

    • Used in telephone service

    • Slow transmission

  • Coaxial cable: Conductor wire is insulated

    • Faster than twisted-pair

  • Fiber-optic cable: Thin strands of glass bound together

    • Uses light beams

    • Faster than coaxial cable

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Media Types (2)

  • Microwave transmission: High-frequency radio signal

    • Must have unobstructed line of sight between sender and receiver

    • Possible to intervene

  • Cellular transmission: Divide area into cells

    • Each cell has a mobile telephone subscriber unit

    • Possible to intervene

  • Infrared transmission: Signals as light waves

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Common Wiring and Cabling Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Common Telecommunications Devices

  • Modem: Translates data from digital form into analog form (for ordinary phones) and back

    • MOdulation and DEModulation

  • Fax modem: Facsimile device but also a modem

  • Multiplexer: Allow several signals to be transmitted over the same line

  • PBX: Manages both voice and data transfer

    • Switching equipment routes phone calls and messages within the building

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Carriers and Services

  • Common carriers: Turk Telecom, AT&T

  • Switched lines

    • Use switching equipment to connect one phone to another

    • Switch: Special purpose circuit that directs messages in certain directions

  • Digital subscriber lines (DSL)

    • Use existing lines to transmit signals over 500Kbps

    • Faster Internet access

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Costs, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Several Line and Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Networks and Distributed Processing Service Types

  • Computer network - communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems.

  • Centralized processing - processing occurs in a single location or facility.

  • Decentralized processing - processing devices are placed at various locations.

  • Distributed processing - computers are placed at remote locations but are connected to each other via telecommunications devices.

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Terminal-to-Host Connection Service Types

  • Host computer has the data and the processing power

  • Dumb terminal contacts host computer for jobs

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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File Server Connection Service Types

  • The application and database reside in host computer.

  • Files transferred as a whole and processed by the user

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Client/Server Connection Service Types

  • Servers have special functionalities (database server, program execution, etc.)

  • Clients request services from servers

  • Clients process service results

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Network Types Service Types

  • Local area network (LAN)

    • Same geographic area

    • Wired into office buildings (unshielded twisted-pair)

  • Wide area network (WAN)

    • Microwave and satellite transmission

    • Long-distance calls

  • International network

    • Transborder data flow

    • International laws

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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A Typical LAN Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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A Wide Area Network Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Connecting Computing Devices Using a Home Network Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Communications Software and Protocols Service Types

  • Communications software - provides a number of important functions in a network

  • Network operating system - controls the computer systems and devices on a network and allows them to communicate with each other

  • Network management software - a manager can monitor the use of individual computers and shared hardware

  • Communications protocol - rules and standards that make communications possible

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Common Communications Protocols Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Use and Functioning of the Internet Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Routing Messages Over the Internet Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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How the Internet Works Service Types

  • Internet Protocol (IP): Set of rules to pass packets from one computer to another

  • Transport Control Protocol (TCP): Set of rules to establish and break connections

  • Internet Protocol Address: Unique address for each computer on the Internet

  • Static vs. dynamic

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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U.S. Top-Level Domain Affiliations Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Three Ways to Access the Internet Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Internet Service Providers Service Types

  • Organizations that provide access to the Internet

  • Choose based on price, reliability, other features (e-mail address)

  • Examples: Superonline, E-kolay

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Internet and Telecommunications Services Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Summary of Internet Services (1) Service Types

  • E-mail

  • Instant messaging

  • Telnet/SSH

  • FTP

  • Chat rooms

  • Internet phone

  • Internet video conferencing

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Summary of Internet Services (2) Service Types

  • Shop on the Web:

  • Auctions: http://www.gittigidiyor.com/

  • Distance learning

  • Music, radio on the Internet

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Common Abbreviations Used in Personal E-Mail Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Two Approaches to Electronic Data Interchange Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Public Network and Specialized Services Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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The World Wide Web Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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The World Wide Web Service Types

An Internet service comprising tens of thousands of independently owned computers that work together as one.

  • Home page: Cover page with text and graphics

  • Hypertext markup language (HTML): Standard language to describe Web pages

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Several Interesting Web Sites Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Sample HTML Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Search Engine Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Intranets and Extranets Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Intranets and Extranets Service Types

  • Intranet – an internal corporate network built using Internet and WWW standards and products

  • Extranet - a network that links selected resources of the intranet of a company with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners

  • Virtual private network - a secure connection between two points across the Internet

  • Firewall - a device that sits between your internal network and the outside Internet

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Summary of Internet, Intranet, and Extranet Users Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Virtual Private Network Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Net Issues Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Privacy and Security Service Types

  • Cookie: Text that is put on user computer to track Web site usage

  • Cryptography: Converting a message into a secret code and then back into the message

  • Encryption

  • Digital Signature: Who sent the message, did the message change on the way?

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Cryptography Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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Summary Service Types

  • Networks - used to share hardware, programs, and databases across the organization.

  • Internet - transmits data from one computer (called a host) to another.

  • The Web - a collection of tens of thousands of independently owned computers that work together as one in an Internet service.

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition