What is the term for methodologically spreading an idea with the intention of promoting or hurting a cause? Propaganda Congregatio del propaganda Galileo, his inventions and scientific explanations Propaganda refers to the control of opinion by significant symbols or to speak more concretely and less accurately by stories, rumors, reports , pictures, and other forms of social commercialism.
Propaganda • Propaganda in the broadest sense is the technique of influencing human action by manipulation of representations. These representations may be spoken or written, pictorial or musical form. • Difference between a sign and a symbol? • A sign is used to mean something specific • A symbol usually implies something larger than itself. • For example, stars and stripes…represents?
Objectives of propaganda • Mobilize hatred against the enemy • Preserve the friendship of allies • Preserve the friendship and if possible to procure the cooperation of neutrals • Demoralize the enemy
Propaganda • Focuses on not allowing people to think • Limits various options/solutions for a given situation • Various devices that are used are name calling, testimonials (experts) etc.
How does propaganda work via news media? • With the rise of global media, information can now be spread instantaneously • With concentration of power to disseminate information in fewer hands, the same information circulates repeatedly around the world.
Three dimension of communication explosion • Geographically –almost entire world is connected via communication networks • Numerous messages are broadcast everyday • Technical complexity of the equipment –only those with expertise can broadcast messages.
Inequalities in world news system comes from: • Somewhat biased view of western media as being more credible (sometimes true –not always) • Inequalities in “capability” (technology and the know-how ) of transmitting news
How is international news disseminated? • Newspapers gather information • Newspapers may share or buy information • Once broadcasted news is public property and can be repeated anywhere—without replication of exact wording, to comply with copy right laws • What are copy right laws? And how to they work? • So can the same news still be circulated, in a new package?
Gathering of information • Some newspapers have their own correspondents • Most newspapers get information from world (international) news agencies • Several developing countries get information (even about themselves) from developed nations
Five international news agencies • AP • UPI (United Press International) • Reuters • AFP • TASS (now ITAR--) • News papers for newspapers
Reasons for concern about international news flow • World agencies have been suffering economic setbacks (Pg. 40- Hatchen) • Even thriving agencies such as AP have an annual budget less than 1/4th of some major corporations (Pg. 41)
Myths about media diversity • Most newspapers get information from same sources • News from same sources gets broadcasted around the world • The new channels are still owned by old media companies