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Natural and human made pollution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Natural and human made pollution

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  1. Natural and human made pollution

  2. What is pollution? • In groups of 4 – 6 discuss what pollution is. • Identify different types of pollution, both natural and human made, and how they affect the planet, i.e. the atmosphere, hydrosphere, the lithosphere and humankind

  3. Environmental impacts of urbanisation

  4. Population • Atmosphere – increasing release of carbon dioxide, decreased oxygen production, as plant colonies are destroyed by spreading urban areas • Hydrosphere – greater demands and pressures on water resources (both surface and groundwater) • Lithosphere – Increased transformation of uninhabited, agricultural or unutilised land to urban users • Human impacts – Psychological impacts of high density living

  5. Land use • Atmosphere – increased average temperatures for most urbanised areas • Hydrosphere – increased use of hydrological resources leading to increased pollution load • Lithosphere – complex changes due to construction, landscaping etc. • Human impacts – Psychological impacts

  6. Transportation • Atmosphere – Air pollution from combustion of fuels. Creation of photochemical smog. Emission of lead from some engines • Hydrosphere – Rain, surface waters polluted with lead, other metals and hydrocarbons. Drainage patterns altered by infrastructure • Lithosphere – Disruption or disfigurement of landscape • Human impacts – Increased noise levels. Health effects of noise and air pollution

  7. Services • Atmosphere – Particulate, noxious fumes from incinerators, land fills, sewage treatment works etc. • Hydrosphere – Leaching of pollutants from landfills. Discharges from sewage outfalls and contaminated surfaces. Pollution from boats • Lithosphere – Sanitary landfill of urban wastes and installation/repairs of services disturb landscape • Human impacts – Denial

  8. Environmental impacts of selected industries

  9. Petrochemical • Atmosphere - Emissions to atmosphere from refining, processing plant. (noxious, toxic) • Hydrosphere – Plant emissions to receiving water bodies. Accidental spills during transport, storage • Lithosphere – Disposal of waste solids, sludges to landfill. Accidental spills during transport, storage • Human impacts – Some product wastes toxic to many life forms. Disruption of life style from emissions to all three spheres

  10. Metals • Atmosphere – particulate, gas emissions during forging, metal working, fabrication • Hydrosphere – Discharge of mill pickling liquors. Other waste disposal to water bodies. Heavy metal releases (intentional, unintentional) • Lithosphere – Disposal of slag, waste products from processes • Human impacts – Health effects of released toxics in air, water

  11. Food/beverage • Atmosphere – Noxious fumes from food processing • Hydrosphere – Wastes often have a high organic content

  12. Mining • Atmosphere – Particulate matter from surface mining, transportation. Noxious, toxic fumes from smelting • Hydrosphere – Runoff from mine tailings. Processing waste disposed of directly into water bodies. Ochre in water bodies • Lithosphere – Tipping of mine tailings, processing wastes. Disruption of agriculture, forestry, recreation by open pit mines • Human impacts – Health hazard to mine workers (mercury, asbestos, coalmining)

  13. Agriculture • Atmosphere – Drift of agricultural sprays. Dust, pollen escape due to field operations • Hydrosphere – Runoff to surface and percolation to sub surface waters of pesticides, fertilisers. Runoff of sludges. Silting of water bodies due to poor farming practices • Lithosphere – Erosion of land surface. Depletion of organic material, necessary soil micro-organisms, etc • Human impacts – Health effects of biocides, polluted water etc.

  14. Pulp and paper • Atmosphere – Release of noxious fumes during processing) • Hydrosphere – Contaminated factory wastes (mercury, organics). Silt from deforested slopes. Loss of wildlife habitat • Lithosphere – Breakdown of ecosystem in clear cut areas. Erosion of unprotected land.

  15. What is pollution? • EU 1996 IPPC Directive: ‘..shall mean the direct or indirect introduction as a result of human activity, of substances, vibration, heat or noise into the air, water or land which may be harmful to human health or the quality of the environment, result in damage to material or property, or impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment.’ • Generally pollutants have a threshold for damage

  16. Natural risks, which are pollutants? • Climatic and meteorolgical • Snow and ice • Droughts • Fog • Frost • Hail • Heat waves • Tropical cyclones • Dust storms • Lightning and fire • Tornadoes

  17. Natural risks, which are pollutants? • Geologic and geomorphic • Avalanches • Earthquakes • Erosion (including soil erosion and shore and beach erosion) • Landslides • Shifting sand • Tsunamis • Volcanic eruptions

  18. Natural risks, which are pollutants? • Floral • Fungal diseases (for example, athletes foot, Dutch elm disease, wheat stem disease) • Infestations (for example weeds, water hyascinth) • Hay fever • Poisonous plants

  19. Natural risks, which are pollutants? • Faunal • Bacterial and viral diseases (for example influenza, smallpox, malaria, smallpox, rabies, cholera, typhoid. • Infestations (for example, rabbits, rodents, termites) • Venomous animal bites

  20. Extreme events and environmental change • Volcanoes • Mount Tomboro – Indonesia 1815 caused two successive years of cold, wet growing seasons throughout the world. 1816 was the year without a summer • Cameroon – August 1986, 1,700 people killed and 10,000 otherwise affected by toxic emissions • Smog • London - December 1952, 4,000 excess deaths

  21. Extreme events and environmental change • Impacts from space • Destruction of dinosaurs • Human impacts • Contribution to global warming

  22. Climate change impacts