GEOG2056 Tourism and the Shrinking World #6 Destination mix & the environments for tourism Lecture Objectives: • examine the interdependencies among the 5 sectors of a destination mix • analyze the environments for tourism • the impact of external factors on holiday makers Reference: Textbook (2006), Chapter #1: pp. 15-36; Chapter 10: pp. 245 – 272
What is a Destination Mix? A destination consists of a mix of 5 elements, which are interdependent to produce a satisfying holiday experience for tourists: • Attractions • Facilities • Infrastructure and • Transportation • Hospitality
Destinations may be primaryorsecondary(sometimes also called a stopover or touring destination) • A primary destination - is • attractive enough to be the primary motivation for tourism visits • aimed at satisfying tourists for several days or longer
A secondaryor stopover destination - • is either an interesting or a necessary place to visit on the way to a primary destination • aims at satisfying tourists for 1-2 days • may be interesting enough to attract tourists on their way somewhere else, or • may, in fact, be a required stop on the way to a final destination. * Certain areas can be primary destinations for one segment of the market or stopover destinations for other segments.
Anattraction may be permanent or temporary: • Site attractions are • attractions of a physical nature • largely permanent • with fixed locations • Event attractions are • short in duration • with changeable location (can be changed) • largely dependent upon the resource base
Drawing power of an attraction: Attractions may also be defined in terms of the distance from which they are able to draw people, thus being significant • locally • state/provincial-wide • regionally • nationally or • internationally
Tourists are motivated to visit a destination because of its certain cultural and natural characteristics: • Natural resources • Climate • Culture • History • Ethnicity • Accessibility • Development and design • Event
Facilities: serving visitors away from home. Tourism facilities are generally referred to: • Lodging • Food and beverage • Support industries
Infrastructure & Transportation Attractions and facilities are not accessible to tourists’ use until basic infrastructures have been developed. They include: • Water systems • Communication networks • Health care facilities • Transportation terminals • Power sources • Sewage/drainage areas • Streets/highways • Security systems
Hospitality resources are referred to • general feeling of welcome that visitors receive while visiting a destination • way that services are delivered by tourism personnel • general feeling of warmth from the local community *a combination of a certain amount of knowledge and a positive attitude that results in specific hospitable behaviours.
How can hospitality resources be improved? • training tourism personnel to be hospitable • encouraging positive feelings towards tourism and tourists on the part of the local residents Hospitality attitude training • Attitude toward self • Attitude toward others • Attitude toward subject matter Encouraging positive feelings towards tourism and tourists • Teaching specific behaviour • Community awareness programs
The Environments for Tourism:Impact of external factors on holiday makers
The impact of external factors on holiday makers(your textbook, 2006, pp. 247)
The Effects of Culture on Travel • 4 possible strategies for overcoming cultural barriers when marketing internationally • Adapt • Do no adapt • Pattern globalization • Change the culture
The Effect of Time on Travel Our time can be spent in any one of the three ways: • Time Divisions (spending time) Maintenance Time Work Leisure (Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp. 253)
Leisure Time Leisure time may be thought of as being divided into three categories shown below: Weekdays LeisureWeekends Vacations (Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp.257) ** What are the implications for tourism industry?
Socio-economic variables &their effects on tourism demand • Age: The relationship between tourism and age has two components: • The amount of leisure time available relative to age • The type and extent of activities undertaken at various age levels ** What are the implications for tourism industry?
Income (Personal Income Distribution (Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp. 261): It is important to see that the income spent on travel is spent at the expense of something else. Travel expenditures are in competition with other expenditures, some of which are discretionary: Personal income • Taxes Disposable income (可支配收入) • Personal outlays Discretionary income (可任意花費收入) • Consumer durables (耐用消費品) Savings Recreation • Mint coat Stereo Savings Trips to Hawaii ** What are the implications for tourism industry?
Gender • Education • Sexuality • Effect ofLife-cycleStages