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GEOG2056 Tourism and the Shrinking World # 6 Destination mix & the environments for tourism Lecture Objectives: examine the interdependencies among the 5 sectors of a destination mix analyze t he e nvironments for t ourism the impact of external factors on holiday makers Reference:

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GEOG2056 Tourism and the Shrinking World

#6 Destination mix & the environments for tourism

Lecture Objectives:

  • examine the interdependencies among the 5 sectors of a destination mix
  • analyze the environments for tourism
    • the impact of external factors on holiday makers

Reference:

Textbook (2006), Chapter #1: pp. 15-36; Chapter 10: pp. 245 – 272

what is a destination mix
What is a Destination Mix?

A destination consists of a mix of 5 elements, which are interdependent to produce a satisfying holiday experience for tourists:

  • Attractions
  • Facilities
  • Infrastructure and
  • Transportation
  • Hospitality
destinations may be primary or secondary sometimes also called a stopover or touring destination
Destinations may be primaryorsecondary(sometimes also called a stopover or touring destination)
  • A primary destination - is
    • attractive enough to be the primary motivation for tourism visits
    • aimed at satisfying tourists for several days or longer
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A secondaryor

stopover destination -

    • is either an interesting or a necessary place to visit on the way to a primary destination
    • aims at satisfying tourists for 1-2 days
    • may be interesting enough to attract tourists on their way somewhere else, or
    • may, in fact, be a required stop on the way to a final destination.

* Certain areas can be primary destinations for one segment of the market or stopover destinations for other segments.

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Anattraction may be permanent or temporary:
  • Site attractions are
    • attractions of a physical nature
    • largely permanent
    • with fixed locations
  • Event attractions are
    • short in duration
    • with changeable location (can be changed)
    • largely dependent upon the resource base
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Drawing power of an attraction:

Attractions may also be defined in terms of the distance from which they are able to draw people, thus being significant

    • locally
    • state/provincial-wide
    • regionally
    • nationally or
    • internationally
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Tourists are motivated to visit a destination because of its certain cultural and natural characteristics:
  • Natural resources
  • Climate
  • Culture
  • History
  • Ethnicity
  • Accessibility
  • Development and design
  • Event
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Facilities: serving visitors away from home. Tourism facilities are generally referred to:
  • Lodging
  • Food and beverage
  • Support industries
infrastructure transportation
Infrastructure & Transportation

Attractions and facilities are not accessible to tourists’ use until basic infrastructures have been developed. They include:

  • Water systems
  • Communication networks
  • Health care facilities
  • Transportation terminals
  • Power sources
  • Sewage/drainage areas
  • Streets/highways
  • Security systems
hospitality resources are referred to
Hospitality resources are referred to
  • general feeling of welcome that visitors receive while visiting a destination
  • way that services are delivered by tourism personnel
  • general feeling of warmth from the local community

*a combination of a certain amount of knowledge and a positive attitude that results in specific hospitable behaviours.

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How can hospitality resources be improved?

  • training tourism personnel to be hospitable
  • encouraging positive feelings towards tourism and tourists on the part of the local residents

Hospitality attitude training

    • Attitude toward self
    • Attitude toward others
    • Attitude toward subject matter

Encouraging positive feelings towards tourism and tourists

    • Teaching specific behaviour
    • Community awareness programs
the effects of culture on travel
The Effects of Culture on Travel
  • 4 possible strategies for overcoming cultural barriers when marketing internationally
    • Adapt
    • Do no adapt
    • Pattern globalization
    • Change the culture
the effect of time on travel
The Effect of Time on Travel

Our time can be spent in any one of the three ways:

  • Time Divisions (spending time)

Maintenance

Time Work

Leisure

(Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp. 253)

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Leisure Time

Leisure time may be thought of as being divided into three categories shown below:

Weekdays

LeisureWeekends

Vacations

(Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp.257)

** What are the implications for tourism industry?

socio economic variables their effects on tourism demand
Socio-economic variables &their effects on tourism demand
  • Age:

The relationship between tourism and age has two components:

    • The amount of leisure time available relative to age
    • The type and extent of activities undertaken at various age levels

** What are the implications for tourism industry?

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Income (Personal Income Distribution (Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp. 261):

It is important to see that the income spent on travel is spent at the expense of something else. Travel expenditures are in competition with other expenditures, some of which are discretionary:

Personal income

  • Taxes Disposable income (可支配收入)
  • Personal outlays Discretionary income (可任意花費收入)
  • Consumer durables (耐用消費品) Savings Recreation
  • Mint coat Stereo Savings Trips to Hawaii

** What are the implications for tourism industry?

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Gender
  • Education
  • Sexuality
  • Effect ofLife-cycleStages