Language Arts and Social Studies for Middle School Teachers Marilee Beach M.Ed. Carol Warren M.Ed., M.A. Arizona Department of Education
Introduction • This Power Point with notes was developed to assist middle school teachers who are asked to include language arts instruction in their social studies classes. Suggested strategies for vocabulary development and summary writing are given.
Outline of Contents • Integration • Across Standards • Within Standard • Social Studies and Reading • Vocabulary Development • Social Studies and Writing • Summary Writing • Reading and Writing in the Social Studies Research Skills
Example Lesson • All teachers need to be teachers of reading and writing. • Using a Performance Objective from eighth grade as an example, suggested strategies are given for integrating reading and writing skills into social studies.
Example - Social Studies Grade 8 Strand 3 Concept 3 PO 7. Summarize the significance of the following Supreme Court cases: • Marbury v. Madison • Plessy v. Ferguson • Brown v. Board of Education • Gideon v. Wainright • Miranda v. Arizona • Korematsu v. United States
Example - Social Studies – Strand 3 Concept 3 PO 7. Summarize the significance of the following Supreme Court cases: • Marbury v. Madison • Content Vocabulary • General Vocabulary
Building Vocabulary • Direct vocabulary instruction is an effective way to build background knowledge (Marzano, Building Background Knowledge, 2004). • The practice of assigning vocabulary and expecting students to look up the words, write definitions, and know the new words for a test is ineffective.
Effective Vocabulary Instruction • Teacher discusses and defines vocabulary words prior to or during the reading of the text. • Before reading the text for the first time, teacher introduces each word or term and offers a definition that fits the context.
Effective Vocabulary Instruction • As you begin reading the text, pause at the end of the paragraph that contains the new word and repeat the definition. • Ask students to repeat the definition and then make sense of the new word in the context.
Effective Vocabulary Instruction • Take time to discuss the meaning and how it affects the comprehension of the text. • Clarify any misunderstandings and repeat the definition again in unison with the class.
Reading Strand 1 Concept 4 – Vocabulary (Grades 6-8*) • PO 1. Determine the meaning of vocabulary using linguistic roots and affixes (e.g., Greek, Anglo-Saxon, Latin). • PO 2. Use context to identify the intended meaning of unfamiliar words (e.g., definition, example, restatement, synonym, contrast). • PO 3. Use context to identify the meaning of words with multiple meanings (e.g., definition, example, restatement, or contrast). • PO 4. Determine the meaning of figurative language, including similes, metaphors, personification, idioms, hyperbole, and technical language. • PO 5. Identify the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech of words, by using a variety of reference aids, including dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CD-ROM and the Internet when available.
Effective Vocabulary Instruction Supports: • Reading Strand 1 Concept 4 • Understand meaning of unfamiliar words • Linguistic roots and affixes • Context – unfamiliar words • Context – multiple meaning words • Figurative language • Reference aids • Reading Strand 1 Concept 6 • Building background knowledge
Content Vocabulary • judiciary • repeal • writ of mandamus • tour de force • null and void • arbiter
General Vocabulary • dominated • prior • denied • allotted • chastise • flouted • assumption
Content Vocabulary • Words and terms that are considered technical (i.e., writ of mandamus) must be taught directly. • Ensure that students understand each term in conjunction with the text. • Offer “student friendly” definitions, examples, and synonyms.
Content Vocabulary • Teaching the word “repeal” (using Reading S1C4PO1) • Root word “appeal” is Latin and means “to drive.” • The prefix “re-” means “again.” • Thus, “repeal” means “to drive again.” • Repealing the case will cause it to be “driven again” or “tried again.”
General Vocabulary • Teaching the word “denied” “The new chief justice, John Marshall, understood that if the Court awarded Marbury a writ of mandamus the Jefferson administration would ignore it, and thus significant weaken the authority of the courts. On the other hand, if the Court denied the writ, it might well appear that the justices had acted out of fear.” Marbury v. Madison (1803) Retrieved from: http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/9.htm
General Vocabulary • Teaching the word “denied” (using Reading S1C4PO2) • Reread paragraph. The first sentence talks about “awarding” which means to give something to someone. • The second sentence begins with “On the other hand,” which signals a reverse. • Thus, “denied” means to not award something to someone.
General Vocabulary • Teaching the word “dominated” “Thus, when the opposing Republicans won the election of 1800, the Jeffersonians found that while they controlled the presidency and Congress, the Federalist still dominated the judiciary.” Marbury v. Madison (1803) Retrieved from: http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/9.htm
General Vocabulary • Teaching the word “dominated” (using Reading S1C4PO2). • Isolate the sentence in the paragraph and reread it. • Focus on “..while they (the Federalists) controlled the presidency…” and “…(the Jeffersonians) still dominate the judiciary.” • Winning the election allowed the Jeffersonians to “control” the presidency.
Continued- • Draw on students prior knowledge of the word ”control” meaning to have authority over. • The word “still” in the second part of the sentence signifies that there has been no change; thus the Federalists still have authority over or “dominate” the judiciary.
Writing Instruction supports: • Social Studies content knowledge • Strand 3: Civics/Government • Concept 3: Functions of Government Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people. • Reading comprehension • Strand 1: Reading Process • Concept 6: Comprehension Strategies
Reading Strand 1 Concept 6 – Comprehension Strategies (Grades 6-8) • PO 1. Predict text content using prior knowledge and text features (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words). • PO 2. Confirm predictions about text for accuracy. • PO 3. Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text. • PO 4. Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text. • PO 5. Connect information and events in text to experience and to related text and sources. • PO 6. Apply knowledge of the organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, compare and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order, by classification) of text to aid comprehension. • PO 7. Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to interpret text.
Social Studies Grade 8 Strand 3 Concept 3 PO 7. Summarize the significance of the following Supreme Court cases: • Marbury v. Madison • Plessy v. Ferguson • Brown v. Board of Education • Gideon v. Wainright • Miranda v. Arizona • Korematsu v. United States
Writing Strand 3, Concept 2- Summary Writing PO 1. Record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, map labels and legends) related to the topic. PO 2. Write a summary based on the information gathered that include(s) : • a topic sentence • supporting details • relevant information PO 3. Write an explanatory essay that includes: a thesis statement supporting details, introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs
Summary Writing • Use guided reading questions as a tool for summary writing • Use guided reading questions to enable students to: • discern the main ideas • discern important supporting details
Marbury vs. Madison – Guided Reading Questions • What role did John Marshall play in shaping the Supreme Court? • Why is the decision Marbury vs. Madison important for the balance of powers in the Federal government? • Who was James Madison?
Marbury vs. Madison - Guided Reading Questions - continued • Who was William Marbury? • What two important results of the case define the role of the Supreme Court today? • In what way does that affect citizens today?
Integration Across Social Studies Strands • Social Studies Grade 8 Strand 3 Concept 3 • Marbury v. Madison – Strand 1 Concept 4 • Plessy v. Ferguson – Strand 1 Concept 9 • Brown v. Board of Education – Strand 1 Concept 9 • Gideon v. Wainright – Strand 1 Concept 9 • Miranda v. Arizona – Strand 1 Concept 9 • Korematsu v. United States– Strand 1 Concept 8
Summary Writing • Other activities- • The individual court case summaries can be combined into one larger summary statement • Summarize, analyze, or compare the significance or effects of two of the cases that are from the same historical period • Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education • Gideon v. Wainright and Miranda v. Arizona
Writing Skills in the Social Studies Standard • Strands 1 and 2 • Concept 1:Research Skills for History (Grades 6-8) • Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research. • Describe the difference between a primary source document and a secondary source document and the relationships between them. • Analyze cause and effect relationships between and among individuals and/or historical events. • Analyze two points of view on the same historical event.
Example - Social Studies Grade 8 Strands 1 and 2 Concept 1 PO 5. Describe the difference between a primary source document and a secondary source document and the relationships between them. PO 6. Determine the credibility and bias of primary and secondary sources.
Primary source documents • Vocabulary instruction is very important when using primary documents • Primary documents may contain archaic or unfamiliar words and variant spellings
Primary source -excerpt “From these and many other selections which might be made, it is apparent, that the framers of the constitution contemplated that instrument as a rule for the government of courts, as well as of the legislature.” MARBURY v. MADISON, 5 U.S. 137 (1803) Page 5 U.S. 137, 180
Secondary source - excerpt “One was the authority to declare acts of Congress, and by implication acts of the president, unconstitutional if they exceeded the powers granted by the Constitution.” Marbury v. Madison (1803) Retrieved from: http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/9.htm
Writing activity Writing Strand 3, Concept 2 PO 2. Write a summary based on the information gathered that include(s): • a topic sentence • supporting details • relevant information • Students will write a summary of the two sources, describing the difference between them, the relationship between them, and analyze the credibility and bias of each.
Resources • ADE Reference Library • K-8 trade books aligned to the Social Studies Standard • On ASSET • Access through IDEAL on ADE website • http://www.ade.state.az.us/
Resources • Arizona Geographic Alliance GeoLiteracy • K-8 lessons linking geography performance objectives to tested language arts skills • http://alliance.la.asu.edu/azga/ • Arizona Council on Economic Education Lending Library • http://www.azecon.org/about.htm
Resources • Arizona Foundation for Legal Services & Education Resource Lending Library • A free lending library of over 2500 law-related education materials • Books, curricula, and lesson plans, including writing and reading activities • http://www.azflse.org/
In summary – Reading Standard • Readers who develop a rich and varied repertoire of word meanings have a greater capacity for understanding the text they read. • Understanding the meaning embedded in text is the fundamental reason for reading.
In summary – Writing Standard • Writing skills particular to the applications listed here may be taught across the curriculum, although some applications may lend themselves more readily to specific content areas. • It is imperative that students write in all content areas in order to increase their communication skills, and ultimately to improve their understanding of content area concepts.
Contact information:Carol WarrenCarol.Warren@azed.gov 602-364-4030Social Studies Resource Pagehttp://www.ade.state.az.us/SBTL/sdi/socstudies.asp