INTERNATIONAL POLITICS Negotiating relations between nation-states Nation-State The primary unit of political organization. Dates from 1648 and the Treaty of Westphalia.
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Austro-Hungarian & the Ottoman).
Melian Dialog (416 BC)
Feminism – Traditional approach excludes female perspectives in IR. Military power ignores important gender-related issues such as rape as state policy, as occurred in Bosnia, or state policy stripping women of human rights, as under the Taliban. Old approach sees these as private crimes with no impact on international politics.
Cold War - the period when tensions between U.S. & U.S.S.R. were high; 1945- 1990. Brief alliance during WWII against Hitler. By 1945, they were the only super-powers. Both with nuclear capability, so no direct military confrontation. Instead, sent aid to multiple small wars around globe (proxy wars).
International community has no global police force, but national police cooperate through Interpol. Also, new International Criminal Court has authority to try individuals for such crimes.
Spread of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.
The U.N. reported in Dec. 2004 that almost 40 million people had AIDs worldwide, 2.2 million children. 5 million new HIV infections in 2004, 640,000 of them children. AIDs deaths: 3.1 million, with half a million of them children.
Pandemics – “a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new … virus appears in the human population, causes serious illness, and then spreads easily from person to person worldwide. Different from seasonal outbreaks … caused by viruses that already circulate. Pandemics are caused by subtypes that have never circulated among people … or have not circulated for a long time. Past influenza pandemics have led to high levels of illness, death, social disruption, and economic loss.” - Center for Disease Control
Potential new threat posed by avian (or bird) flu which could trigger a pandemic with millions dead if not effectively addressed by international community.
International community tries to regulate pollution through bilateral and multilateral treaties such as Kyoto Accords, Rio Declaration, Climate Change Convention & Biological Diversity Convention. But few mechanisms to ensure compliance.
At least one party is an aggressor - wanting access to something (more land, a year-round port, oil fields), wanting to punish another state, or wanting to preempt or block an expected attack by someone else.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees tries to coordinate international response to refugee problems. Goal to help everyone seek asylum and either stay safely in another state, resettle there, or return home.
overcrowding and malaria.
have growing appeal.
International trade programs & agencies: e.g., World Trade Org., International Monetary Fund.