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Geog / Planning 379 – Urban Growth & Development Lecture 11: The Central Business District 1. CBD “Users” 2. Advantages of CBD Location for Office Employers 3. CBD Linkage Types 4. Intra-CBD Location Patterns: The ‘Core-Frame’ Concept

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Geog / Planning 379 – Urban Growth & Development Lecture 11: The Central Business District 1. CBD “Users” 2. Advanta


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Geog / Planning 379 – Urban Growth & Development

Lecture 11: The Central Business District

1. CBD “Users”

2. Advantages of CBD Location

for Office Employers

3. CBD Linkage Types

4. Intra-CBD Location Patterns: The ‘Core-Frame’ Concept

5. CBD Decline: Concepts of Absolute versus Relative Change

6. CBD Revitalization Strategies

READING: Required: Textbook Ch 6, 135-147

Optional:Rannells

Alice – objects that “glory” does not mean the same thing

as “a nice knockdown argument.”

Humpty Dumpty – “When I use a word, it means just what I choose it to mean – neither more nor less.”

Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass

1 cbd users
1. CBD “Users”
  • One way to begin to understand the role of the CBD is to consider who uses it…

4 Major Groups:

    • Workers – Still primary location for many major employers, office buildings, gov’t offices
    • Residents – Usually now at extremes of income scale
    • Shoppers – Many CBDs much smaller role than formerly
    • Visitors – Renaissance in many CBDs in the hotel industry: CBD asentertainment and cultural center
  • These groups found in CBD in different proportions at different times of the day and days of the week
1 cbd users1
1. CBD Users

Total

Number of People in CBD

Residents and Visitors

Workers and Shoppers

M

6:00 AM

Noon

6:00 PM

M

Time of Day

2 advantages of cbd location for office employers
2. Advantages of CBD Location for Office Employers
  • Whether or not a downtown stays healthy has a lot to do these days with job decentralization
  • Most CBDs still major centers of large employers

Reasons for CBD location:

  • Face-to-face contact
  • Accessibility
  • Broadly diversified labor pool
  • Prestige
  • Linkages between employers
3 cbd linkage types
3. CBD Linkage Types

A

B

4 Types of CBD Linkages (Rannells):

  • Competitive
  • Complementary
  • Ancillary
  • Commensal

PA > 3PB

Synergistic Effects!

PA

PB

Consumer

1. Competitive Linkages:

External Market

CBD

No Direct Interaction among locational units…

Proximity to competitorshelps each

Comparison shopping facilitated

Dept

Store

Dept

Store

Dept

Store

3 cbd linkage types1
3. CBD Linkage Types

Direct linkages and interactions among locational units…

Related functions cluster together

NOT:Complimentary!

  • Competitive
  • Complementary

CBD

Daily Metro

Newspaper

Advertising

Agency

External Market (Residential Areas)

Commercial

Bank

Art Supply

Store

3 cbd linkage types2
3. CBD Linkage Types

Clusters of unlike functions serve single pool of clients (Downtown employees)

Internal CBD Market

One LARGE locational unit and a number of smaller ancillary units

From word for “maid servant” – these are auxiliary or helping linkages

  • Competitive
  • Complementary
  • Ancillary

CBD

XYZ Corp.

Office Tower

Lu Ann’s

Coffee Shop

Candy Store

Flower

Shop

Newsstand

3 cbd linkage types3
3. CBD Linkage Types
  • Competitive
  • Complementary
  • Ancillary
  • Commensal

No Direct Interaction among locational units… All serve separate external markets

…But they have common needs

Alternate type of these: sharing of common suppliers

From word for “eating together at the same table”

13th Floor XYZ Office Tower

Bill Collection

Agency

Website

Design

Firm

Independent

Documentary

Film Studio

4 intra cbd location patterns the core frame concept
4. Intra-CBD Location Patterns: The Core-Frame Concept
  • Recall Burgess Concentric Zone Model
  • He identified two main parts of the CBD
    • CBD Proper
    • CBD Fringe
  • This is same idea as in Core-Frame Model
  • Basic Idea: Intensely built-up nucleus surrounded by much larger, less intensely developed frame area containing land uses that either support those in the core or cannot afford steep rents of the core
4 intra cbd location patterns the core frame concept1
4. Intra-CBD Location Patterns: The Core-Frame Concept
  • Principal Core Land Uses:
  • Office Towers
  • Government Functions
  • Major Retail Area
  • Financial District
  • Entertainment: Theaters, Arenas, Stadiums
  • Hotels
  • Convention Centers
  • Restaurants, Bars, Clubs

Frame

Light Manufacturing

PARKING

Core

Wholesaling

PARKING

Warehousing

Multifamily housing

PARKING

Medical Center

5 cbd decline concepts of absolute versus relative change
5.CBD Decline: Concepts of Absolute versus Relative Change
  • Consider historical demise of retailing and the change in employment shares for the CBD
  • For instance, between 1963 and 1972:

CBD retail sales: 15% → 7.4%

CBD employment: 17.3% → 14.6%

  • These vary a lot by city!

Retail sales:

Atlanta 19.3% → 7.4%

Denver 11.3% → 4.4%

  • Some cities’ CBDs are faring better

Portland’s is still single largest retail center

Denver’s Downtown has been revitalized dramatically

  • Even during the worst time period (1963-1972) in Salt Lake City’s CBD sales grew by 8.8% while its share went down almost as much as national average: 15.6% → 8.7%
  • Let’s look at a numerical example to illustrate absolute versus relative decline…
5 cbd decline concepts of absolute versus relative change1
5.CBD Decline: Concepts of Absolute versus Relative Change

Absolute Decline: Both Metro Area and CBD Lost retailing

Which experienced worse decline?

Metro Area: -5 million change on base of 15 million = 33% decline

CBD: -3 million change on base of 6 million = 50% decline

CBD experienced both an ABSOLUTE and a RELATIVE decline!

5 cbd decline concepts of absolute versus relative change2
5.CBD Decline: Concepts of Absolute versus Relative Change

Absolute Increase: Both Metro Area and CBD Gained retailing

Which was bigger gain?

Metro Area: +10 million change on base of 20 million = 50% increase

CBD: +1 million change on base of 5 million = 20% increase

So CBD experienced an ABSOLUTE INCREASE but a RELATIVE decline!

Alternative way to think about this is in terms of CBD share…

6 cbd revitalization strategies
6. CBD Revitalization Strategies
  • What can be done to halt declines?
  • Why should we care?
  • Retailing: Battle largely lost, but…
  • Innovations:

Shopping mall strategies:

Eaton Centre in Toronto

Eaton’s

Simpson’s

3 Stories of Shops

5 Levels of Parking Garage on site with access on Yonge Street – Main Street of old CBD retailing district

6 cbd revitalization strategies1
6. CBD Revitalization Strategies
  • What can be done to halt declines?
  • Why should we care?
  • Retailing: Battle largely lost, but…
  • Innovations:

Shopping mall strategies:

Eaton Centre in Toronto

Galleria in Philadelphia

  • Enhance Pedestrian Environment

Pedestrian malls

Transit ways

Skywalks (Cincinnati, Minneapolis)

Underground Connections (Montreal)

  • Entertainment Function: Reinvent the CBD as the Metropolitan Area’s ‘Playground’!
  • Housing and hotels
  • The Main Event: Retain Employment Base and Share of Metro White-Collar Employment
pop quiz name
POP QUIZ Name _____________
  • Which of the following correctly describes the CBD’s trend?
  • Both an absolute and a relative decline
  • An absolute decline but a relative increase
  • An absolute decline with no relative change
  • No absolute change but a relative decline