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GeoFusion, Inc. Digital Earth Visualization Paul Hansen hansen@geofusion.com Chuck Stein stein@geofusion.com www.geofusion.com GeoFusion, Inc. Santa Cruz based software technology company Based on Paul Hansen’s work with digital earth rendering Goals:

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geofusion inc

GeoFusion, Inc.

Digital Earth Visualization

Paul Hansen

hansen@geofusion.com

Chuck Stein

stein@geofusion.com

www.geofusion.com

geofusion inc2
GeoFusion, Inc.
  • Santa Cruz based software technology company
  • Based on Paul Hansen’s work with digital earth rendering
  • Goals:
    • Create core technology for the GeoWeb
    • Put an interactive digital earth on everyone’s desktop
  • License software – GeoMatrix® Toolkit (SDK)
  • Custom application development
  • Rendering services
accelerating digital earth development
Accelerating Digital Earth Development
  • Early choice: application vs. toolkit
  • Digital EarthApplication Programmer’s Interface (API) allows for a multitude of applications and uses
  • Promote data sharing with non-proprietary projection and data format
  • Provide customers the ability to use the Earth as an interface to desired functionality
  • Platform independence
geomatrix digital earth system
GeoMatrix®Digital Earth System
  • The GeoMatrix Toolkit
    • An Application Programmer’s Interface (API) for building digital Earth applications
  • Uses a unique projection and global tessellation system that facilitates tile generation, texture mapping, & rendering
  • Tile generation and data “format” that supports:
    • Multi-resolution representation of source data
    • Fast look-up database speeds demand paging of data tiles
    • Valid/invalid (transparent) pixel determination
    • Compression and format options
geomatrix digital earth system5
GeoMatrix®Digital Earth System
  • Renders vast amounts of data
  • Fast inclusion of data at run-time
  • Real-time scene generation
  • Continuous level-of-detail while zooming
  • Platform independent, OpenGL based graphics
  • Low cost hardware, highly optimized software
  • Small libraries (DLLs: 50-200k)
  • API allows for rapid development of applications
requirements
Requirements
  • 128 Mb RAM
  • 3D accelerated graphics
  • OpenGL
native data types
Native Data Types

Multi-resolution, tiled representation of:

  • Imagery
  • Terrain
  • Vector
  • Annotation
geomatrix toolkit features
GeoMatrix® Toolkit Features
  • Fully interactive, high performance 3D digital Earth platform
  • Visualization of image, terrain, vector, & annotation data
  • Continuous level-of-detail while zooming
  • Manages a vast number of datasets simultaneously; attach and detach at will
  • Platform independent C++, object oriented API
geomatrix toolkit features cont
GeoMatrix® Toolkit Features (cont.)
  • Draw your own content into the GeoFusion rendered world:
    • Text, lines, 3D models, etc.
  • Demand paging of local or remote data tiles
  • Blend between image data layers
  • Animate events over time
  • Output arbitrary resolution images or frames for movies
slide10

Tile Generation

3D Navigation

Rendering(visualization)

Tile I/O(data servers)

GeoMatrix Toolkit Modules

geomatrix applications
GeoMatrix Applications

scene 1

scene 2

Multiple scenes/viewports

globe 1

globe 2

Coincident,

concentric or offset

dataset 1

dataset 2

dataset 3

Image, Terrain,

Vector, Annotation

slide12

1km NASA Modus

1km pseudo-color

bathymetry & terrain

slide13

6 inch aerial imagery draped over

LIDAR elevation data.

70 cm aerial imagery

slide15

Yosemite, California:

8m black & white DOQ imagery on 10m DEM

esri s arcglobe
ESRI’s ArcGlobe
  • Available in ArcGIS 3D Analyst extension
  • Tremendous increase in performance
  • Interactive, supports layers, 3D models, etc.
  • GIS is moving from flatland to the “globe”
  • Allows viewing most data in ESRI geodatabase
  • Prepares data on-the-fly, then caches tiles
geomatrix core concepts
GeoMatrix core concepts

1. Tiled, multi-resolution data packaging. Tiles have a consistent size with a definite upper-bound, allowing them to be easily moved around and assembled into a view.

2. Unique tiling system (GeoMatrix) for the Earth globe. Hybrid system--combination of geographic projection and square polar projection. Smooth transitions across domain boundaries. Efficient treatment of polar singularities.

geomatrix core concepts cont
GeoMatrix core concepts (cont.)

3. Fast recursive subdivision and fast, aggressive culling of "geometry“ (surface parts) outside the viewing window.

4. Fast and fine-grained level-of-detail (LOD) calculation allows the minimal collection of needed tiles to be accessed.

5. Introduction of higher-resolution data before it is easily visible. "New“ data appears "between" previously seen data rather than replacing it, and, for terrain data, gradually morphs to its full extent.

geomatrix core concepts cont21
GeoMatrix core concepts (cont.)
  • 6. Fast data coordination and rendering allow a realistic Earth to be a 3D canvas for other kinds of data visualization. The GeoMatrix provides a spherical coordinate space infrastructure.
  • 7. Creation of a set of software modules that make this technology available to a wide variety of applications developers through a set of innovative programming interfaces (APIs). The GeoMatrix Toolkit.
polar projection

0ºE

QUADRANT 2

15ºW

30ºW

QUADRANT 3

QUADRANT 1

45ºW

80ºN

60ºW

70ºN

60ºN

75ºW

QUADRANT 0

50ºN

90ºW

Polar Projection
globe mapping
Globe Mapping

top view

full globe

mapping function
Mapping Function

90oN

0.0

P

P

45oN

1.0

180oW

135oW

90oW

-1.0

0.0

1.0

PX = PX * PY

PY = PY

coordinate spaces
Coordinate Spaces
  • “Face” coordinates—normalized Cartesian coordinates per-face.
  • “Tile” coordinates—quad-tree indexing: F,L,R,C
    • globe face index
    • recursion level number
    • row index
    • column index
coded vertexes
Coded Vertexes
  • Peano coding for vertex locations. Except:
    • no interleaved bits
    • LSB is dedicated “1.0” bit
    • location is within a particular tile
  • Fast conversion between face coordinates.
  • Combine vertex coding with tile coordinates.