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health psychology

Health Psychology

Designing Persuasive Interventions – part 2 PY 470 Hudiburg

how effective are interventions based in psychological theories
How effective are interventions based in psychological theories?
  • Learning theories
    • Operant conditioning – the use of reinforcement of positive behaviors and avoidance of negative behaviors (negative reinforcement). The use of self-rewards and seatbelt sweepstakes: programs to persons at a university to wear seatbelts worked better for faculty and staff and less well with students (Rudd & Geller, 1985).
    • Modeling behavior and vicarious reinforcement can be employed (Bandura, 1977). Many health promotion messages use celebrities in the messages to persuade.
psas using celebrities
PSAs using celebrities

how effective are interventions based in psychological theories5
How effective are interventions based in psychological theories?
  • Social cognitive theories
    • Bandura’s social cognitive theory – self-efficacy – the degree one believes he/she can engage in a behavior. Some program concentrate on increasing a person’s confidence in engaging in positive health behavior. McAuley, Talbot, and Martinenz (1999) used positive and negative feedback to improve fitness performance. The positive feedback was more effect, less negative affect, and less fatigue.
    • Designing HIV-prevention commonly uses social cognitive approaches. In Figure 13.3, p. 543, Bryan et al. (1996) using training to improve self-efficacy in women for condom use and resulted in increased condom use.
are personally relevant messages the most effective
Are personally relevant messages the most effective?
  • One of the issues in health education messages is that “one size fits all” doesn’t work as well as “personally relevant” messages.
    • Tailored message – addresses specific concerns of health-related behavior
    • Targeted message – addresses a general promotion of health-related behavior (e.g., promoting mammography in women).
are personally relevant messages the most effective7
Are personally relevant messages the most effective?
  • Screening
    • Much of the research has used the transtheoretical model (stages of change) in relationship to target messages.
    • Skinner et al. (1994) sent standardized letters or targeted letters (to a specific risk of breast cancer) from physicians to African-American and low income women. At a 3 month follow-up, a higher percentage of both groups who received a targeted letter, showed stage movement (transtheoretical model).
    • Targeted messages are more effective in increasing screening than standard messages (Kreuter & Skinner, 2000). Personally relevant message are more effective at motivating people to get tested for HIV.
are personally relevant messages the most effective8
Are personally relevant messages the most effective?
  • Pain management
    • Patient-treatment matching – Table 13.3, p. 546 – how much information is needed by a person?
    • Many studies have shown the importance of treatment matching for pain management.
    • Law et al. (1974) found that patients who receive more information about dental procedure (film) experienced less pain than patients who watched a neutral film.
    • People show lower levels of arousal and anxiety when given the type of information they prefer.
    • Auerbah et al. (1976) – Box 13.6, p. 550 examples of general versus specific information about dental procedures
    • Litt et al. (1999) examine type of information for dental procedures to reduce anxiety. Those who experience distress experience less anxiety when distracted. Those who had fears to certain cues (e.g. drill) experience less anxiety when densentization training was used.
are personally relevant messages the most effective9
Are personally relevant messages the most effective?
  • Health promotion
    • Different people should find different types of health promotion information most convincing.
    • Box 13.7, p. 552, Zelman et al. (1992) compared two types of smoking cessation treatments. They found that for low craving smokers, rapid smoking was more effect. For high craving smokers, nicotine gum was more effective. There were no differences of overall effectives of the two methods between the randomly assigned groups in the study.
are personally relevant messages the most effective10
Are personally relevant messages the most effective?
  • Health promotion
    • Females and males have different concerns about the use of condoms. There is a need for different promotion messages. For females messages that emphasize romantic and committed relationships are more effective. For males, messages related to reduced sensitivity and sexual pleasure in the use of condom are more effective in increasing condom use.
    • Promotion smoking cessation programs are more effective when personally relevant – Box 13.8, p. 553-554. Strecher et al. (1994) studies tailored smoking cessation messages. With generic letter, at four month follow-up, 7.4% quit, while for personal letter 20.8% quit. The effect was more dramatic for light/modest smokers: generic letter 7.1% quit and personal letter 30.7% quit.
    • Many other studies have shown the effect of personally relavant information for a variety of health related behaviors: alcohol use, nutrition – F 13.4, p. 551, and condom use.
    • Sanderson and Cantor (1995) found that those who focused on intimacy in relationship benefited from communication, while those with interdependence goals benefited from technical skills necessary for condom use
lingering issues
Lingering issues
  • Do people know what they need?
    • Sometimes they do and sometimes they don’t know what they need. It is possible that a person does not know the psychological factors or physical effects of a health impairing behavior.
  • Can personal relevance backfire?
    • There are instances where information can have negative effects. Figure 13.6, p. 557, Gintner et al. (1987) showed that having a parental history of hypertension influence a person to get screening more than no parental history. Threat worked best when there was no parental history.
this is the end of this course but
This is the End of this course, but…
  • I hope you have enjoyed this class. The best of health to all of you. Hopefully your goals for a healthier life will be realized.