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Challenges in Mainstreaming Gender Concerns Nutan Jain & Shiv D. Gupta Indian Institute of Health Management Research (IIHMR), Jaipur National Consultative Workshop on Gender Training Resource Assessment and Design of Multimedia Gender Training Kit August 6-7, 2003

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Challenges in Mainstreaming Gender Concerns

Nutan Jain

&

Shiv D. Gupta

Indian Institute of Health Management Research (IIHMR), Jaipur

National Consultative Workshop on

Gender Training Resource Assessment and Design of Multimedia Gender Training Kit

August 6-7, 2003

Electronic Media Production Center (EMPC), IGNOU,

New Delhi


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Women to Gender

Gender and Development (GAD)

The GAD approach is concerned not with women alone but with relations between women and men, and with understanding why women are consistently assigned secondary or inferior roles to men in society. Women are not passive objects of assistance or policies, but active subjects in social processes.

In ICPD, 1994, gender equity and the empowerment of women were accepted as cornerstones for the planning of effective health and population programmes


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Gender Mainstreaming

Integration of gender concerns into the analyses, formulation and monitoring and evaluation of policies, programmes/ projects, with the objective of ensuring that these reduce inequalities between women and men












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  • Gender Mainstreaming in India

  • enshrined in the Indian Constitution

  • (in its preamble, chapters on fundamental rights,

  • fundamental duties, and directive principles)

  • due recognition of the need to design, implement and monitor

  • gender-sensitive policies and programmes at different levels with

  • full participation of women

  • equal property and inheritance rights for women

  • eradication of child labour and child prostitution

  • avoidance of sexual harassment at workplace

  • A committee on the status of women in India was set up in 1971

  • for a comprehensive review of the questions relating to the

  • rights and status of women, within the matrix of a society in transition


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Gender Mainstreaming in India

  • Active participation in International Year of Women (1975); and

  • International Women’s Decade (1975-1985)

  • A separate chapter on Women and Development in

  • the Sixth Five-year Plan (1980-85)

  • a break from the welfare approach to women’s issues

  • Dept. of Women and Child Development (1985)

  • National perspective Plan for Women (1998-2000)


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Gender Mainstreaming in India

National Commission on Women (1992)

Central Social Welfare Board (1956)

National Institute of Public Cooperation and

Child Development (1975)

The Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (1992)

channel to micro-credit to women entrepreneurs

National Policy for the Empowerment of Women (2001)


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Gender Mainstreaming in Health Sector

National level situation reports presented during the following

conferences:

Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme (1992)

International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994)

IV World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995)

Commonwealth Plan of Action on Gender and Development (1995)

Sixth meeting of Commonwealth Ministers Responsible

for Women’s Affairs - April 16-19, 2000

Reproductive Health Programme (life-cycle approach) (1995)


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Gender Mainstreaming in Health Sector

National Family Health Survey (1998-1999)

included questions on women’s decision making

Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act (1971)

Mahila Mandals

Involvement of PRIs (with 33 per cent women members)


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Women’s Exposure to Mass Media

Women who are notregularly exposed to any media

India

Total 40 per cent

Urban 13 per cent

Rural 50 per cent

SC 48 per cent

ST 62 per cent

OBC 41 per cent

Others 31 per cent

Source: NFHS II 1998-99


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Women’s Exposure to Mass Media

Women reads a newspaper or

magazine at least once a week 21 per cent

Women watches TV at least once a week 46 per cent

Women listens to the radio at least once a week 36 per cent

Women visits cinema/ theater at least once a month 11 per cent

Source: NFHS II 1998-99


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Redefine development

Gender approach to development emphasizes the need to

Recognize the diversity of men and women

Transform

gender

relationship


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Gender Role Framework

Triple

Role

Framework

Gender Analysis Matrix

Gender Training Frameworks


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Capacity Building of NGO Representatives 1999-2002 by IIHMR

Transformational Training

A team of woman and man

Participatory planning

A series of activities

Empowerment = direction X support X autonomy X accountability


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Issues covered

Mental Health

RCH-a

paradigm

shift

Nutrition

Marginalization

Gender

violence

Subordination

Gender

stereotyping


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Issues coveredcont...

Rights based

programming

Sex ratio

Access

to care

Traditional

belief

Monitoring &

Evaluation

Gender

Indicators

Traditional

practices

Gender

Planning


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Institutionalizing Gender at IIHMR

Module on

Gender and

Health

WHRC

Use of

gender-

sensitive

terminology

Journal of

Health

Management

Gender &

Health

Changes at

Policy level


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Challenges for

Gender

Mainstreaming

Gender Training

Understanding of

the concepts

Team of Trainers

(both male & female)

Use bias free

vocabulary

Don’t forget

one-half of

the population

What are the

benefits

and risks of

changing perception

Gender

throughout the

life cycle

Remove

misconceptions


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Challenges for

Gender

Mainstreaming

Gender Training

Cross-cultural

issues

?

Right-based

programming

Rights along with

duties

Slow pace

Monitoring &

Evaluation

Gender-sensitive

data

Gender-sensitive

Indicators


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It is fatal to be a man or woman

pure and simple

one must be a woman manly, or a man womanly.


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