BACTERIA A 3 ½ BILLION YEAR SUCCESS STORY
BACTERIA Bacteria are prokaryotic - which means they DO NOT have nucleus
BACTERIA • Discovered in the late 1600’s by Anton van Leeuwenhoek • This discovery would not have been possible WITHOUT the invention of the MICROSCOPE
BACTERIA ARE UNICELLULAR • Bacteria come in three shapes • cocci -- round • bacilli -- rodlike • spirilla -- spiral shaped
STRUCTURE OF A BACTERIAL CELL • Cell wall: surrounds and protects the cell • Cell membrane: inside the cell wall; controls what goes in and out
STRUCTURE OF A BACTERIAL CELL • Cytoplasm: gel-like material inside the cell • Ribosomes: protein factories • Genetic material: contains instructions for cell’s functions (DNA)
STRUCTURE OF A BACTERIAL CELL • Flagellum: (plural -- flagella) long whip like structure it helps the bacteria to move.
TWO KINGDOMS OF BACTERIA ARCHAEBACTERIA EUBACTERIA
KINGDOM: ARCHAEBACTERIA • Means “ancient bacteria” • They live in extreme environments • DO NOT NEED OXYGEN
KINGDOM: EUBACTERIA • Chemically different from Archaebacteria • Do not live in extreme environments, but live everywhere else • DO NEED OXYGEN
REPRODUCTION IN BACTERIA • Binary fission: a process in which one cell divides to form two identical cells • Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction • Asexual reproduction involves only one parent. Offspring are identical to the parent.
REPRODUCTION IN BACTERIA • Conjugation: one bacterium transfers some of its genetic material • Conjugation is a form of sexual reproduction which involves two parents
SURVIVAL NEEDS OF BACTERIA • ARE BACTERIA INDESTRUCTIBLE? • Some bacteria can survive harsh conditions (no food, drought, poisonous wastes) by formingendospores.
SURVIVAL NEEDS OF BACTERIA • Endospore: structure that allows the bacteria to survive hostile conditions. • An endospore is a sack around the DNA which protects it.
ARE BACTERIA FRIEND OR FOE? Bacterial infections can cause death. But that is only the beginning of the story….
BACTERIAL FRIENDS • Lactobacillus acidophilus • Used for turning milk into yogurt and to preserve other dairy products
BACTERIAL FRIENDS • Streptomyces • Soil bacteria used to make streptomycin, an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections
BACTERIAL FRIENDS • Pseudomonas putida • Cleans wastes from sewage water at water treatment plants
BACTERIAL FRIENDS • Escherichia coli • Bacteria that live in your colon and small intestine. Helps you digest your food every day.
BACTERIA AT WORK Bacteria are used as one of the tools to clean up oil spills. The bacteria EAT the oil, turning it into carbon dioxide.
BACTERIA AT WORK • Nitrogen fixing bacteria -- change nitrogen from the air into OXYGEN!!!
BACTERIA Population There ARE more bacteria in your mouth than all of the humans on Earth.
BACTERIA Population There are over 100 million bacteria on ONE square inch of your skin. Both good and bad bacteria…of course.
How can we slow bacteria down… A YOGURT a day keeps the doctor away. By eating good bacteria found in some foods you can stay healthier. If you DO get a bacterial infection antibiotics CAN help…they CANNOT help a virus.
BACTERIA LESSON OFTHE DAY 99% of bacteria are… HELPFUL!!!!