AI and Robotics Definitions and Ethical Consequences
Artificial intelligence (also known as machine intelligence and often abbreviated as AI) is intelligence exhibited by any manufactured (i.e. artificial) system. Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robots. This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology, and bioengineering.
Alan Turing – Pioneer of AI • Wrote “Computing machinery and intelligence” in 1950 • Created the “Turing Test”
Turing Test • Inspired by the party game known as the “Imitation Game” • A man and woman go into separate rooms • Guests try to tell them apart by writing questions to them and reading their responses • Both the man and woman try to convince the guests that the answers are coming from the woman
Turing Test • The Turing test would test a computer’s capability to perform human-like conversation. • If the “guest” couldn’t tell the difference between the human responses and the computers, the “test” was passed by the computer.
Is the Turing test valid? • Is simulating human conversation the same thing as simulating intelligence? • A computer could be “intelligent” but might not be able to communicate effectively. • Even some humans might not pass the test. It’s difficult to determine who is intelligent.
Robots and the Rest of Us by Bruce Sterling • Sterling addresses the fact that robot ethicists are meeting in the mansion that once belonged to Alfred Nobel. • He ascertains that recent automations are challenging human-kind on four fronts
One – War time • Machines that can track and kill by remote control • Unmanned roadside bombs are triggered by transmitters designed for radio-controlled toys
Ethical Questons • Who is to be held responsible for an unmanned war crime? • Should machines be giving orders?
Two – Brain Augmentation • Machines controlling us • A remote-controlled rat was created at SUNY Downstate in Brooklyn • Its direction of travel can be determined by a human with a transmitter standing up to 550 yards away.
Three – Physical Aspects • Japanese roboticists are working on walking wheelchairs and mobile arms that manipulate and fetch things for their aging population • The elderly person will be controlling these devices. • What if the human in control is weak, limited and or senile?
Four – Social impact • Sony created the robot dog, Aibo. It was a commercial success. • Qrio won’t be on the shelves soon • It is a human-shaped, self-propelled puppet than can walk, talk, pinch and take pictures • It has absolutely no ethics “programmed” into it
Ethical Questions • Whom should we fear, the robots or the roboticists? • What could robotics/AI “add” to the terrorists arsonals of terror?
Humanoid with Attitude by Anthony Faiola • Hiroshi Kobayashi has invented a cyber-receptionist named Ms. Saya.
Humanoid with Attitude • Mr. Kobayashi told her, “You’re so stupid!” • She responds, “Eh?” her face wrinkling into a scowl, “I tell you, I am not stupid!” • He claims she has a temper!
About Ms. Saya • She has voice recognition technology that allows 700 verbal responses • She also has an infinite number of facial expressions: from joy to dispair, surprise to rage! • When her energy is low, she is prone to making mistakes
The future • Officials predict that every household in Japan will have at least one robot by 2015 • Scientists have dubbed 2005 the “unofficial year of the robot”
Ethical Questions • You’ve already seen where the Patriot Act has impacted our privacy • How do you feel about the prospects presented here regarding AI and robotics? • Are you excited or anxious about the future?
Group Assignment • Break into groups and answer the questions that are brought up on the following link: • http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.01/view.html?pg=1