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9 milestones in animal evolution. 1. Multicellularity. An organism that has many cells. Example organisms: Sponges. 2. Tissues. A group of specialized cells with a common structure and function. Example: Cnidarians (Jellyfish) (Corals) (Anemones). 3. Bilateral Symmetry.

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1 multicellularity
1. Multicellularity
  • An organism that has many cells.
  • Example organisms: Sponges
2 tissues
2. Tissues
  • A group of specialized cells with a common structure and function.
  • Example: Cnidarians
    • (Jellyfish)
    • (Corals)
    • (Anemones)
3 bilateral symmetry
3. Bilateral Symmetry
  • Animal configuration with left and right halves that mirror each other.
  • Example: Flatworms
    • (Flukes)
    • (Tapeworms)
4 body cavity
4. Body Cavity
  • Fluid-filled opening
  • Example: Roundworms
    • (Hookworms)
    • (Pinworms)
5 coelom
5. Coelom
  • The fluid-filled body cavity that forms within the mesoderm. A better body cavity.
  • Example: Mollusks
    • (Clams)
    • (Octopus)
    • (Squid)
    • (Snails)
6 segmentation
6. Segmentation
  • Body plan based on segments.
  • Example: Annelids
    • (Earthworms)
    • (Leeches)
7 jointed appendages
7. Jointed Appendages
  • Jointed limbs
  • Limbs that have many parts
  • Example: Arthropods
    • (Insects)
    • (Crabs)
    • (Arachnids)
    • (Barnacles)
    • (Shrimp)
8 deuterostomes
8. Deuterostomes
  • An animal whose mouth forms from an opening other than the blastopore
  • Example: Echinoderms
    • (Sea Stars)
    • (Sea Urchins)
    • (Sea Cucumbers)
    • (Sand Dollars)
evolution of invertebrates
Evolution of Invertebrates

Annelids

Chordates

Arthropods

Echinoderms

Mollusks

Protostomes

Deuterostomes

Roundworms

Bilateral Symmetry

Flatworms

Cnidarians

Radial Symmetry

Sponges

Asymmetry

Ancestral Animal

9 notocord
9. Notocord
  • A dorsal rod-like structure that runs the length of the body and serves as the internal skeleton.
  • Example: Chordates
    • (Fish, Sharks, Rays)
    • (Mammals, including Humans)
    • (Reptiles)
    • (Birds)
    • (Amphibians)