Middle East – BeginningEarly Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) 632 C. E. – 1st Islamic pilgrimage to the Ka’ba by Muhammad Muslim forces seized Byzantine Syria and Palestine, most of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, NW India, and NW Africa. Persians, Egyptians, Mesopotamians and others rose to positions of wealth and power under Abbasid rule. Abu al-Abbas did not show preference to Arab Muslims.
Middle East Middle Post Classical Period 1000 After the 9th century, Sufi Muslims attracted numerous converts particularly in Persia and India. Conversely, in the 12th century Muslim philosophers sought a rational understanding of the world through the works of Aristotle and Plato.
Middle East End Post Classical Period 1450 • Islamic philosopher Ibn Rushd followed Aristotle, and his work found its way into the schools and universities of western Europe. • Autonomous Islamic forces from Tunisia conquered Crete, Sicily, Cyprus, Sardinia, southern Italy, Southern France, and other coastal regions of the Mediterranean. Rushd was an Arab philosopher, physician, philosopher, astronomer, mathematician, physicist .
Middle East Continuities 600 to 1450 C.E. Muslim merchants, pilgrims, and missionaries traded over the Silk Road. Trade improved agricultural production which resulted in the development of commercial centers Maritime trade in the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean increased. Though the Quran recognized women as honorable and equal to men, the practice of veiling women created a symbol of male authority in the Islamic community.
Middle East Continuities 600 to 1450 C.E. Missionaries, mosques, and Islamic educational institutions were established throughout the dar al-Islam. As Muslims made the pilgrimmage to Mecca (Hajj), mosques and inns were established. Over the centuries these pilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and values. Arabic remained the language of religion, theology, philosophy and law, while the Persian language dominated literature, poetry, history and political reflection. Baghdad flourished as a center of learning and culture.
South Asia/IndiaBeginning Post Classical Period 600 CE • Arab forces entered India as early as the mid 7th century before the establishment of the Umayyad caliphate
South Asia/IndiaMiddle Post Classical Period 1000 CE • Mahmud of Ghazni, leader of the Turks in Afghanistan, led raids of India between 1001 and 1027. • Mahmud demolished Hindu and Buddhist sites • Buddhism declined. • Mosques or Islamic shrines were constructed on the sites where Hindu and Buddhist structures were destroyed.
South Asia/IndiaLate Post Classical Period 1450 CE • Mahmud’s successors established an Islamic state known as the sultanate of Delhi. • By 1500 CE Indian Muslims numbered 25 million, about 1/4 of the subcontinent’s population. • Many Indians converted to Islam to get out of the caste system. • The bhakti movement emerged in southern Indian in the 12th century. It was a cult that set out to erase the distinction between Hinduism and Islam.
South Asia/IndiaContinuities – Post Classical Period 600-1450 CE Muslim Arab and Persian mariners dominated trade between India and western lands from the 7th through 15th centuries. Muslim traders frequently married local women and found places for themselves in Indian society. Indian Ocean Trade continued to grow, creating demand for silk and porcelain from China, spices from southeast Asia; pepper, gems, pearls, and cotton from India; incense and horses from Arabia and southwest Asia; and gold, ivory, and slaves from east Africa.
Southeast AsiaMid Post Classical Period Indians from southern India brought Islam into Southeast Asia Muslim merchants from Arabia or Persia also brought Islam into Southeast Asia. Ruling elites who converted to Islam often continued to honor Hindu, Buddhist, or native southeast Asian traditions.
Southeast AsiaLate Post Classical Period When Venetian traveler Marco Polo visited the island of Sumatra he noted that many residents of the towns and cities had converted to Islam, while those living in the countryside and the hills retained their inherited traditions. In the mid 15th century, the Melaka ruling class converted to Islam.
AfricaEarly Post Classical Period 600 CE Arabic conquerors established Islam in north Africa during the 7th and 8th centuries. By the 8th century, Muslim merchants flocked to camel caravans traveling across the Sahara to Ghana in search of gold. Merchants from Ghana also provided ivory and slaves for traders from north Africa.
AfricaMid Post Classical Period 1000 CE 10h century—King of Ghana converted to Islam. The king did not impose Islam on his people. Instead, in many cases, the people practiced both faiths. After about the 9th century, trans Saharan and Indian Ocean trade networks stimulated increased traffic in African slaves, ivory, and gold.
AfricaLate Post Classical Period 1450 CE After the Mali Empire conquered Ghana, the rulers of Mali recognized Islam but did not force it on their realm. Mali ruler Mansa Musa observed Islamic tradition by making his pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) in 1324-1325. He gave out gold all along his journey. Upon his return to Mali, he built mosques, particularly in the trading cities frequented by Muslim merchants. He also sent students to study with distinguished Islamic scholars in north Africa. He had 500 slaves on his trip to Mecca.
AfricaContinuities Post Classical Period In east Africa, like in west Africa, the ruling elites and the wealthy merchants converted to the Islamic faith. Muslim women in sub-Saharan Africa socialized freely with men and they continued to appear and work openly in society in ways not permitted to women in other Islamic lands. Between 750 and 1500 CE, the number of African slaves transported to northern destinations may have exceeded ten million. Islam supplemented traditional religions of Africa.