The Aztec Civilization. Petiano: Thiago Ávila Pouzada. The Aztec History.
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Petiano: Thiago Ávila Pouzada
Little is known of the earliest Aztecs, because they did not keep a written record. Their history was passed on by word of mouth from one generation to thenext. Legend has it that they came from an Island called Aztlán, meaning “White Place – Place of Herons”. The Aztec Civilization was born around 1320 and was extinct around 1520. It lasted for two centuries, becoming one of the most amazing civilizations the world has ever seen. Their extinction was because of the Spanish arrival in Mexico, on the 15th Century. Montezuma, the Great Aztec Ruler, thought Cortéz, the Spanish Captain, was a returning
Moctezuma I (1440-1469);
7. Axayacatl (1469-1481);
Moctezuma II (1502-1520);
The Aztec EmperorsAlong these two centuries that the Aztec Empire prospered, the Aztec people had 12 different Emperors, besides Montezuma, The Aztec Ruler.
Centeotl – Corn God;
Chalchiuhtlicue – Goddess ofLakes and Streams;
Chantico – Goddess of Fires;
Chicomecoatl – Goddess of Food and Produce and, by extension, also Goddess of Fertility;
Cihuacoatyl – Goddess of Motherhood and Fertility;
Coyolxauhqui – Moon Goddess;
Ehecatl – God of Wind;
Ixtlilton – God of Medicine, Healing, Feasting and Games;The Aztec Gods
The most known Aztec God is Quetzalcoatl, The Creator God, The Quetzal Bird, The Feathered Serpent.
The Aztec Civilization contained about 15 million people that lived in nearly 500 towns and cities. About 300 000 people lived in Tenochtitlán. In this famous city, they controlled the whole empire, since being responsible for taxes, famine and market trading, till the punishments for breaking any of the code of government laws. The offenders were enslaved into tedious work for a specific amount of time. If the offense happened to be minor, the law-breaker was charged with a string of fees and fines. This type of governing system is only one of many things that affected aspects of everyday life for the Aztecs.
The Aztec sculptures which adorned their temples and other buildings were among the most elaborate in all of the Americas. Their purpose was to please the gods and they attempted to do that in everything they did. Many of the sculptures reflected their perception of their gods and how they interacted in their lives. The most famous surviving Aztec sculpture is the large circular Calendar Stone, which represents the Aztec universe.
The Mexicas, as are known the Aztec people, were especially interested in education. Boys and girls were carefully educated from birth. During the first years of life, fathers educated boys, while mothers
In the context of the family, men and women played distinct roles. Aztec women married at about 16. In school boys were taught arts and crafts, and the girls were taught to cook and other necessities.
Farming – Irrigation:
The Aztecs made Chinampas, artificial islands to extend the crops into the swamp. Although the Chinampas seemed to float, they were anchored to
The Aztecs spoke a language called Nahuatl.
The Aztecs had 3 basic crafts: metal work, feather work, and music. The metal workers had no iron so they used copper, gold, and silver. That created jewelry of gold and silver.
The Aztec Society was divided into three classes: slaves, commoners and nobility. The children of the poor parents could be sold, usually for a certain time period. Slaves could buy back their freedom. The
The war was a very important activity, due to the aspirations of conquest. The people were completely prepared for war, since education time. The high society boys went to the schools and were prepared to become warriors, and priests and leaders as well.
The Sun Stone is one of the most amazing attribute of the Aztec Culture. Their knowledge of math and astronomy allowed them to make one fantastic time calendar, the Aztec Calendar, also known as “The Sun Stone”.
The calendar consisted of a 365 day calendar cycle and a 260 day ritual cycle. These two cycles together formed the 52 year-century, sometimes called the “Calendar Round”. The calendric year began with the first appearance of the Pleiades asterism in the east immediately before the dawn light.
Every month had its name, and the days of the month were numbered from one to twenty.The days of the
Nemontemi (empty days) – Five unlucky days; no rituals, general fasting.
Tonatiuh's Face is the face of the sun, Lord of Heaven, around which takes place all daily and periodic phenomena. The crown, nose-pendant, ear-rings and necklace are magnificent, as must be the ornaments characteristic of this deity. The hair is blond, due to the golden appearance of the sun. The wrinkles on the face show age and maturity. And the tongue, stuck out is the form of an obsidian knife, indicates that the diety demands to be fed with blood and human hearts.
Four Olin representing the Earthquake Epoch or Sun. The four epochs represented inside the square portions of this symbol correspond to the four previous epochs also called suns.
Second Ring of the Sun Stone (from the center):
The second ring from the center is composed of 20 named days contained in one month, also used for naming years. Each year starts on one of four of these 20 days. Here are these twenty days:
Twenty Days of the Aztec Month:
Snake – Coatl;Lizard – Cuetzpallin;House – Calli;Wind – Ehecatl;
Crocodile – Cipactli;Flower – Xochitl;Rain – Quiahuitl;Flint – Tecpatl;Movement – Ollin;Vulture – Cozcacuauhtli;Eagle – Cuauhtle;Jaguar – Ocelotl;Cane – Acatl;Herb – Malinalli;Monkey – Ozomatli;Hairless Dog – Itzquintli;Water – Atl;Rabbit – Tochtli;Deer – Mazatl;Skull – Miquiztli.
Sun Rays – Chalchihuite Ornaments – Splashed Blood Symbols.
Outer Ring of the Sun Stone (from the center):
Dedication Plate – Herbs with Buds – White Scrolls – Flame Sign – Xiucoatl's Tail.