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SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN WATER SUPPLY ISSUES AND REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING PROGRAM OVERVIEW. Presentation for Ozaukee County Board of Supervisors and MATC FIRST FRIDAYS Community Partnership Forum Series “THE FUTURE OF OZAUKEE COUNTY’S WATER SUPPLY” May 6, 2005.

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southeastern wisconsin water supply issues and regional water supply planning program overview

SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN WATER SUPPLY ISSUES AND REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING PROGRAM OVERVIEW

Presentation for

Ozaukee County Board of Supervisorsand MATC FIRST FRIDAYS CommunityPartnership Forum Series

“THE FUTURE OFOZAUKEE COUNTY’S WATER SUPPLY”

May 6, 2005

slide2

SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN WATER SUPPLY ISSUES AND REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING PROGRAM OVERVIEW

PRESENTATION OVERVIEW

  • REGIONAL SETTING
  • WATER SUPPLY ISSUES
  • REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING PROGRAM
  • PLANNING CHALLENGES
southeastern wisconsin water supply issues and regional water supply planning program overview1
Southeastern Wisconsin Water Supply Issues and Regional Water Supply Planning Program Overview

AREAS SERVED BY PUBLIC

AND PRIVATE WATER SUPPLYSYSTEMS IN SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN: 2000

2,700 Square Miles (62% west of Divide)

2.0 Million People

Public Water Supply

  • Lake Michigan
    • Nine Plants (30 systems)
    • 1.2 Million People
    • 210 mgd
  • Groundwater
    • 50 Systems
    • 400,000 People
    • 55 mgd

Private Water Supply

  • 400,000 People
  • 38 mgd
slide4

SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN WATER SUPPLY ISSUES AND REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING PROGRAM OVERVIEW

TRENDS IN WATER USE IN MILWAUKEE AND OZAUKEE COUNTIES: 1979-2000

(IN MILLION GALLONS PER DAY)*

*Excludes power generation uses – 1,867 million gallons per day of surface water in Milwaukee County and 119 mgd in Ozaukee County in 2000.

slide5

HISTORIC PER CAPITA WATER USE IN MILWAUKEE AND OZAUKEE COUNTIES(gallons per person per day)

slide6

General Hydrogeology of Southeast Wisconsin

20 miles

Maquoketa

subcrop

Lake Michigan

Milwaukee

Sand-and gravel aquifer

2200 feet

Silurian aquifer

Sandstone aquifer

Maquoketa aquitard

slide7

“Dolomite” Aquifer:

-Silurian dolomite

-Fracture-dominated flow

-Only present in east

-Important for municipal and domestic wells

slide8

“Sandstone” Aquifer:

-Sandstone, dolomite

-Regionally extensive

-Excellent aquifer

-Porous flow

-Most high-capacity wells

-Occurs beneath shale in east

Exposure of Sandstone in the Wisconsin Dells

slide9

Relative well depths

domestic wells: 100-300 ft deep

most municipal wells: ~200-800 ft deep

deepest wells: ~2200 ft deep (municipal wells in SE WI)

tallest buildings: ~600 ft high

dolomite

shale

sandstone

granite

water supply issues focus on southeastern wisconsin
Water Supply IssuesFocus on Southeastern Wisconsin

DEEP AQUIFER SYSTEM

  • QUANTITY.Historic and Continued Drawdownof Up to Four to Five Feet per Year
  • QUALITY.Concerns in Some Systems Relatedto Radium and Dissolved Solids
    • RADIUM COMPLIANCE ISSUES.22 Systemsin Southeastern Wisconsin (53 in Wisconsin)
    • COMPLIANCE DATES.2006-2009
water supply issues focus on southeastern wisconsin1
Water Supply IssuesFocus on Southeastern Wisconsin

SHALLOW AQUIFER SYSTEM

  • CURRENT QUANTITY.Currently Very Limited Problems Due to Seasonal and Longer-Term Dry Weather Conditions. Problems Are Limited in Extent—Not Widespread
  • FUTURE QUANTITY.There Are Sustainability and Potential Surface Water and Wetland Base Flow Impacts If Uses Greatly Increase, Particularly If This Aquifer is Used As An Alternative to the Deep Aquifer
  • SURFACE WATER CONFLICTS. Conflicts Over New Well Siting and Surface Water Advocates and Existing Groundwater Users
  • QUALITY.Isolated Problems
    • Arsenic Concerns. Six Municipal Systems
    • 24 Special Well Casing Areas
slide12

Water Supply Issues Focus on Southeastern Wisconsin

LOCATION OF SPECIAL WELLCASING REQUIREMENT AREASIN SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN

water supply issues focus on southeastern wisconsin2
Water Supply IssuesFocus on Southeastern Wisconsin

LAKE MICHIGAN SUPPLY

  • LAKE MICHIGAN.Treated Water is An Ample, High-Quality Source. Its Use is ConstrainedBy Diversion Laws and Policies. Current Treatment Plants Have Substantial Potentially Excess Capacity (diversion laws and policies are not a major constraint in Ozaukee County)
slide15

SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN WATER SUPPLY ISSUES AND REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING PROGRAM OVERVIEW

REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNINGPROGRAM – THREE ELEMENTS(COORDINATED WITH AND DESIGNED TO COMPLEMENT LOCAL ACTIONS)

REGIONAL

  • Conduct Basic Groundwater Inventories(Completed in 2001 With Partner—WGNHSand WDNR)
  • Collect Additional Inventory Data and Develop Regional Groundwater Simulation Model(Completed with Partners—USGS, WGNHS,and WDNR)
  • Prepare Regional Water Supply System Plan (Preliminary Study Funding In Place, Study Organization is Underway)
first element basic groundwater inventories
First Element – Basic Groundwater Inventories

DEPTH TO BEDROCKIN SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN

a cooperative project
A Cooperative Project…

Second Element – GroundwaterModel Development

modeling objectives in southeastern wisconsin

Second Element – Groundwater Model Development

Modeling Objectives inSoutheastern Wisconsin
  • Understand Present GW System
  • Study Current and Future Impactsof Groundwater Use
  • Water Supply Plan--Simulate Alternative Management Options
  • Delineate Contributing Areasfor Wellhead Protection
  • Provide a Framework for Site-Specific Models and Studies
slide19

Shallow

Deep

The following series of slides shows the simulated history of groundwater pumping and groundwater levels in southeast Wisconsin from the late 1800s through the present

Water Levels in the Sandstone Aquifer

(feet above sea level)

Well Locations and Pumping Rates

Pre-1864

slide20

Shallow

Deep

Water Levels in the Sandstone Aquifer

(feet above sea level)

Well Locations and Pumping Rates

1880-1900

slide21

Shallow

Deep

Water Levels in the Sandstone Aquifer

(feet above sea level)

Well Locations and Pumping Rates

1920-1930

slide22

Shallow

Deep

Water Levels in the Sandstone Aquifer

(feet above sea level)

Well Locations and Pumping Rates

1950-1961

slide23

Shallow

Deep

Water Levels in the Sandstone Aquifer

(feet above sea level)

Well Locations and Pumping Rates

1970-1980

slide24

Shallow

Deep

Water Levels in the Sandstone Aquifer

(feet above sea level)

Well Locations and Pumping Rates

1990-2000

slide25

Shallow

Deep

The Milwaukee/Chicago cone of depression is one of the largest areas of groundwater drawdown in North America

Water Levels in the Sandstone Aquifer

(feet above sea level)

Well Locations and Pumping Rates

2010-2020

pumping has altered groundwater flow directions
Pumping Has AlteredGroundwater Flow Directions

2000

1900

recharge and local flow

recharge and local flow

third and final element proposed regional water supply plan
Third and Final ElementProposed Regional Water Supply Plan
  • Development of Water Supply Service Areas and of Forecast Demand for Water Use
  • Development of Recommendations for Water Conservation Efforts to Reduce Water Demand
  • Evaluation of Alternative Sources of Supply, Culminating in Identification of Recommended Sources of Supply for Each Service Area and in Recommendations for Development of the Basic Infrastructure Required to Deliver that Supply (in Ozaukee County, Lake Michigan option consideration expected for Cedarburg, Grafton, Fredonia, Saukville, as well as for added areas in Mequon)
third and final element proposed regional water supply plan continued
Third and Final ElementProposed Regional Water Supply Plan(continued)
  • Identification of Groundwater Recharge Areas to Be Protected from Incompatible Development
  • Specification of Any New Institutional Structures Found Necessary to Carry Out the Plan Recommendations
  • Identification of Any Constraints to Development Levels in Subareas of the Region that May Emanate from Water Supply Sustainability Concerns
water supply planning challenges
Water Supply Planning Challenges

OVERALL CHALLENGE – To Develop a Plan for the Provision of Long-Term Sources of High-Quality Water for the Southeastern Wisconsin Region

  • Determine a Balance and an Efficient Management Program for Sources of Supply:
    • Lake Michigan (consistent with regulations & policies)
    • Shallow Aquifer
    • Deep (Regional) Aquifer (with treatment)
    • Precipitation (?) Recharge Enhancement
    • Other Recharge Enhancements
water supply planning challenges1
Water Supply Planning Challenges

BALANCE GROUNDWATER WATER SUPPLY NEEDS WITH SURFACE WATER IMPACTS

water supply planning challenges2
Water Supply Planning Challenges

CHALLENGE–Integration of Water Supply Planning with Land Use and Comprehensive (“Smart Growth”) Planning

  • Link Reasonably Expected Water Supply Capacities As One of Several Factors Considered in Future Land Use Decisions – This Requires Water Supply Facilities Plan
  • Take Into Account Important Water Supply Considerations in Establishing Land Use Patterns
    • Preserve Important Groundwater Recharge Areas
    • Protect Existing and Future Well Zone of Contribution Areas
    • Promote Local Zoning to Protect Areas Most Susceptible to Groundwater Contamination
water supply planning challenges3
Water Supply Planning Challenges

CHALLENGE–Integration of Water Supply Planning with Land Use and Comprehensive (“Smart Growth”) Planning

  • Promote Low Impact and Other Development Patterns and Stormwater Management Practices Which Maintain the Natural Hydrology
  • Potential Limits to Development Density in Selected Areas to Help Achieve a Safe Water Supply
water supply planning challenges4
Water Supply Planning Challenges

CHALLENGE – Water Conservation

  • Determine What Levels Are Achievable and At What Cost
  • Balance Conservation and Economic Development Objectives
  • Implementation – How to Achieve