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Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity: The Electrolysis Component. Workshop on Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower NREL DC Office, Sept 8,2003. Renewable Electricity- Infrastructure. Meets DOE Hydrogen Feed Stock Strategy:

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production of hydrogen from renewable electricity the electrolysis component

Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity:The Electrolysis Component

Workshop on Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower

NREL DC Office, Sept 8,2003.

renewable electricity infrastructure
Renewable Electricity- Infrastructure

Meets DOE Hydrogen Feed Stock Strategy:

  • Primary Indigenous Sources: Wind, “run of river” hydro, solar
  • No carbon-emissions in electricity-hydrogen generation
  • Mature technology, established cost progression

But can we meet DOE cost target ?

$2.00 per kg at plant gate

wind electrolysis integration
Wind-Electrolysis Integration

Process Capabilities:

  • > 90% of energy consumed by cells (@ 20 bar)
  • generator following load
    • trade off between efficiency and cap $. Efficiency inversely proportional to cell surface area (cap$).
    • design to avg efficiency/wind resource:
      • Plant X = 53 kWh/kg
      • Plant 2X = 47.5 kWh/kg
  • “Current sink” characteristic
    • Voltage regulated by cells
    • Response like “leaky capacitor”
  • Value of by-products
    • Electricity on demand
    • Oxygen by-product @ $25 per tonne = .4 cent per kWh
    • D20 ?
cost target implications
Cost Target Implications
  • Simple Cost Model :
    • $/kg = Efficiency(price of electricity) +

[Annual (CRF+O/M)]  (Capital Cost per kg/h)÷ [(capacity factor)  8760 h/y]

    • Implications
        • For Annual (CRF +O/M) =20%
        • Capacity Factor = .35
        • Avg. Efficiency = 50 kWh/kg (=approx 80% wrt HHV)
two market models
Two Market Models:
  • Wind-Hydrogen Generation Model
  • Wind- Hydrogen&Electricity Generation Model
capacity factor matching in wind hydrogen generation model
Capacity Factor Matching in Wind-Hydrogen Generation Model
  • Single tier market design: Large-Scale Hydrogen Production
  • Tech Implications
    • Power Conversion: Optimize DC-Wind conversion based on electrolysis cells
    • Optimize cell size to scale of production – cell cost key
    • Maintaining grid stability with high electrolysis penetration
    • Pressurized cell design amenable to distribution pipeline
capacity factor matching in wind hydrogen electricity generation model
Capacity Factor Matching in Wind Hydrogen-Electricity Generation Model
  • Two tier market design:
    • Primary Market : Electricity Secondary Market: Hydrogen
    • Deregulated electricity market design with environmental credits for emission avoidance
  • Capture distributed generation benefit
    • Closer to market
    • Higher value electricity market supports secondary hydrogen production (energy storage)
  • Technology Implications
    • Controls
    • System Cost Key
technical challenges
Technical Challenges
  • Intermittent operation; long term electrode stability
  • Economic scale of cell; cost highly dependant on cells
  • Gas purity process dynamics:
    • Controlling gas/liquid separation
    • Reducing bypass cell currents
    • Cell pressurization
  • Power conversion & controls
conclusions
Conclusions:
  • DOE cost targets are very challenging
  • Early pathways to develop infrastructure:
    • Replace SMR hydrogen under right market conditions (NG conservation/CO2 mitigation):
      • heavy oil upgrading
      • ammonia production
    • Distributed “hydrogen&electricity generation model” may play role in early infrastructure development – if value put on green electricity/green hydrogen.