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Privacy as Contextual Integrity Helen Nissenbaum Department of Culture & Communications, NYU http://www.nyu.edu/projects PowerPoint Presentation
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Privacy as Contextual Integrity Helen Nissenbaum Department of Culture & Communications, NYU http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum. Overview. What is privacy and why do we care about it (if we do)? Definitions Control versus Access Descriptive versus normative

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Privacy as Contextual IntegrityHelen NissenbaumDepartment of Culture & Communications, NYUhttp://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum
overview
Overview
  • What is privacy and why do we care about it (if we do)?
  • Definitions
  • Control versus Access
  • Descriptive versus normative
  • In search of a normative foundations for privacy “not a court of law but a court of conscience…”
  • BUT … Conflicts, tradeoffs, balancing
  • Principles -- e.g. sensitivity of information
  • Problem: privacy in public (aggregation, data mining, etc.)
  • Solution: fight it out; interest politics; revert to dogmatism
  • Look for guidance at societal level
what is privacy definitions
What is Privacy? …. Definitions
  • Privacy is not simply an absence of information about us in the minds of others; rather it is the control we have over information about ourselves. --Charles Fried
  • Privacy is a limitation of others’ access to an individual through information, attention, or physical proximity. --Ruth Gavison
  • Privacy is the right to control information about and access to oneself. -- Priscilla Regan
  • Common Law Right to Privacy (as characterized by Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis, 1890): An individual’s right of determining, ordinarily, to what extent his thoughts, sentiments, and emotions shall be communicated to others.
  • "Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extend information about them is communicated to others." (p. 7)
  • "...privacy is the voluntary and temporary withdrawal of a person from the general society through physical or psychological means, either in a state of solitude or small-group intimacy or, when among larger groups, in a condition of anonymity or reserve." (p. 7)
  • Westin, Alan F. Privacy and Freedom. (New York: Atheneum, 1967)
overview1
Overview
  • What is privacy and why do we care about it (if we do)?
  • Definitions
  • Control versus Access
  • Descriptive versus normative
  • In search of a normative foundations for privacy “not a court of law but a court of conscience…”
  • BUT … Conflicts, tradeoffs, balancing
  • Principles -- e.g. sensitivity of information
  • Problem: privacy in public (aggregation, data mining, etc.)
  • Solution: fight it out; interest politics; revert to dogmatism
  • Look for guidance at societal level
privacy as contextual integrity
Privacy as Contextual Integrity
  • Norms of Appropriateness determine what types of information are/are not appropriate for a given context
  • Norms of Distribution (Flow, transfer) determine the principles governing distribution (flow, transfer) of information from one party to another.
    • S shares information with R at S’s discretion
    • R requires S to share information
    • R may freely share information about S
    • R may not share information about S with anyone
    • R may share information about S under specified constraints
    • Information flow is/is not reciprocal
    • Etc.
  • Contextual Integrity, is respected when norms of appropriateness and distribution are respected; it is violated when any of the norms are infringed.
questions
Questions
  • Can we develop systematic ways to inform the technical mission of privacy-preserving data transactions (including data-mining) with contextual norms?
  • Meta-question: If this is a beginning, how do we establish meaningful, ongoing conversation across the disciplines -- despite vast differences in knowledge-bases and methodologies?