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Pharmaceutical Dissolution Testing Teaching Module. Bo Hu Chemical Engineering @ UPRM. Outline. Introduction Dissolution procedure IVIVC Dissolution Analysis Applications. Activity of GI-tract. Dosage Forms • Storage • Separation – depending on technological type • Transport

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Presentation Transcript
  • Introduction
  • Dissolution procedure
  • Dissolution Analysis
  • Applications
activity of gi tract
Activity of GI-tract

Dosage Forms

• Storage

• Separation – depending on technological type

• Transport

• Processing




• Absorption of drugs

–many xenobiotics are absorbed by passive diffusion (lipophilicity, molecular weight)

• Resecretion of drugs to GI-Tract


Drug disintegration --- first order process

  • Drug dissolution ---proportional to the concentration difference of the drug between the particle surface and the bulk solution
  • Dissolution testing is a critical formulation tool in the process of drug discovery that entails measuring the stability of the investigational product, achieving uniformity in production lots and determining its in vivo availability. Thus this method is useful in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry to formulate drug dosage forms and to develop quality control specifications for its manufacturing process.
dissolution method development
Dissolution Method Development
  • Physical and chemical properties of the drug
  • Determination of the dissolution apparatus
  • Selection of the dissolution medium
  • Determination key operating parameters
  • Method optimization
  • Validation of the methodology
physical and chemical properties
Physical and Chemical Properties
  • Ionization constants (pKa)
  • Solubility as a function of pH
  • Solution stability as a function of pH
  • Particle size
  • Crystal form
  • Common ion, ion strength, and buffer effects
apparatus usp
Apparatus USP
  • Apparatus 1 (Rotating basket)
  • Apparatus 2 (Paddle assembly)
  • Apparatus 3 (Reciprocating cylinder)
  • Apparatus 4 (Flow-through cell)
  • Apparatus 5 (Paddle over disk)
  • Apparatus 6 (Cylinder)
  • Apparatus 7 (Reciprocating holder)
key operating parameters
Key Operating Parameters
  • Media
    • Volume
    • Temperature: 37 0.5ºC
    • Deareation
  • Sinker evaluation
  • Analytical detection
  • Sampling time points and specifications
  • Heating of the medium, followed by filtration and drawing of a vacuum for a short of time
  • Temperature filtration
  • Sonication
  • Helium sparging
analytical detection
Analytical detection
  • UV detection --- easy for automation and faster analysis
  • HPLC --- recommended method
sampling time points
Sampling time points

Time Points

IR products

  • Test time : 30 to 60 minutes


  • Single point : NLT 85% in 15 minutes
  • Dissolution profile : sampling at 5-, 10-or 15-minute intervals

Extended-Release Products

Test time : at least 3 test times

  • Early time point : 1-2 hours : potential dose dumping
  • Intermediate time point : define the release profile
  • Final time point : show complete release of the drug
  • Re-evaluation and optimization should be done when human BA data are available.
  • Linearity
  • Accuracy
  • Precision
  • Specificity
  • Robustness / ruggedness

Parameters for medium used are

  • pH
  • Medium volume or flow rate
  • Rotation speed
  • Apparatus sample position
  • Sinkers
  • Media deaeration
  • Temperature
  • Filters
  • Column and mobile conditions (if analyzed with HPLC)
Dissolution procedure:

Discriminating method

Sufficient ruggedness

Reproducible operation


Assessment of the batch-to-batch quality of a drug product

Assessment of the physical stability of the formulation

Low variability in dissolution results

qualitative tool
Qualitative tool
  • Biological availability (BA)
  • Biological equivalency (BE) (and / or)
    • Biowaivers (waivers from additional in vivo studies for immediate release solid oral dosage forms)
  • Batch to batch consistency
    • Product characterization
    • Quality control (QC)
bioequivalent drug products
Bioequivalent drug products
  • Pharmaceutical equivalency: the rate and extent of adsorption do not show a significant difference when administered at the same molar dose of therapeutic moiety under similar experimental moiety under similar experimental conditions, either single dose or multiple.
in vitro in vivo correlation ivivc
In vitro/in vivo correlation (IVIVC)
  • The main objective of the IVIVC is to establish the dissolution test as a surrogate for BE studies, which may reduce the number of BE studies performed during the initial approval process as well as with certain scale-up and post approval changes.
definition of ivivc
Definition of IVIVC
  • Predicative mathematical model describing the relationship between an in vitro property of the dosage form and an in vivo response.
  • A general term that refers to a relationship between a biological property produced by a dosage form and a physicochemical characteristic of the same dosage form.
  • Facilitate drug development by reducing the in vivo studies
in vivo drug release may depend on
In Vivo Drug Release May Depend on
  • dissolution rate
    • robustness of rate controlling mechanism
  • .....
  • Geometry (pylorus)
  • Mechanics (peristalsis)
  • Chemistry (pH)
  • Biochemistry (enzymes)
  • .....
approaches to obtain ivivc
Approaches to obtain IVIVC
  • Look for appropriate mathematical model to describe the relationship between in vitro-in vivo dissolution.
  • Choose different dissolution conditions to match in vivo dissolution profile


  • Quantitative IVIVC
      • Single-point correlation
      • Point-to-point IVIVC
interpretation of ivivc time profiles
Interpretation of IVIVC time profiles
  • Extent --- profile vertically in terms of its final plateau
  • Rate --- process as fast or slow in terms of its mean time
  • Shape --- additional information about the profile in terms of the variance or another equivalent metric
extended application
Extended application
  • Ordinary tablets and capsules
  • Extended –release
  • Delayed-release
  • Transdermal
  • Multivitamin
  • Mineral
  • Class Monographs for non-prescription drug combinations
  • Textbook: Pharmaceutical Dissolution Testing (Hardcover) by Jennifer J. Dressman (Editor), Johannes Kramer (Editor) Publisher: Informa Healthcare; 1 edition (July 8, 2005)
  • Other References: Seubpong Kumpusiri, Patima Maneesatid, The dissolution procedure: development and validation, Pharmacopeial forum Vol.31(5), 26May 2006