NEBOSH International General Certificate Foundations in Health and Safety IGC1 Element 1
Course Aims & Objectives This course is designed to provide delegates with the ability to: • Discuss the moral, social and economic reasons for maintaining and promoting health and safety • State the role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a framework for the regulation of health and safety • Identify the sources of information on health and safety • State the key elements of a health and safety management system
Health and Safety Since 1950, the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have shared a common definition of occupational health.
Health and Safety The definition reads: "Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention amongst workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological capabilities; and, to summarize, the adaptation of work to man and of each man to his job."
Key Terms Health - A State of well being. Safety – Absence of danger or physical harm. Welfare – Facilities for workplace comfort. Environmental Protection - A measure used to prevent harm to the environment of the world
OHS Foundations • Accident • Dangerous Occurrence • Near miss • Work related ill health • Hazard • Risk
Why Health and Safety? Moral - An employee should not have to risk injury or death at work, nor should others associated with the work environment.
Why Health and Safety? • Economic • Many governments realize that poor occupational safety and health performance results in cost to the State (e.g. through social security payments to the incapacitated, costs for medical treatment, and the loss of the "employability" of the worker). • Employing organizations also sustain costs in the event of an incident at work (such as legal fees, fines, compensatory damages, investigation time, lost production, lost goodwill from the workforce, from customers and from the wider community).
Why Health and Safety? Legal - Occupational safety and health requirements may be reinforced in civil law and/or criminal law; it is accepted that without the extra "encouragement" of potential regulatory action or litigation, many organisation’s would not act upon their implied moral obligations.
Moral • Prevent suffering and maintain quality of life • No-one should be expected to risk life and limb in return for a contract of employment
Health and life at work: A basic human right • Health and Safety at work today is a basic human right • A moral obligation: • The human costs are far beyond unacceptable. T • The cost of accidents and ill health amounts to an estimated 4 per cent of the World's GDP. • In the current global financial and economic crisis, this situation may even worsen.
Legal • Qatar Labour Law Article 99… • Variety of other Acts and Regulations • Failures can lead to: • Enforcement notices • Prosecution • Civil actions for compensation
Is good health & safety good business? “We recognise the importance of costing loss events as part of total safety management. Good safety is good business” Dr. J Whiston, ICI Group SHE Manager
Is good health & safety good business? “Safety is, without doubt, the most crucial investment we can make, and the question is not what it costs us, but what it saves.” Robert McKee, Chairman Conoco (UK) Ltd.
Is good health & safety good business? “Prevention is not only better, but cheaper than cure…Profits and safety are not in competition. On the contrary, safety at work is good business.” Basil Butler, MD British Petroleum plc
Accident Costs Iceberg Insurance Costs Uninsured Costs
Insurance Costs • Employers Liability • Public Liability • Product Liability • Motor Vehicle
Uninsured Costs • Product and material damage • Lost production time • Legal costs • Overtime & temporary labour • Investigation time/Administration • Supervisors time • Fines • Loss of expertise/experience • Loss of morale • Bad publicity
Piper Alpha • 167 dead • Estimated cost of over £2 billion
Grangemouth • BP refinery fire in 1987 • One person died • Cost £50 million in property damage • Cost further £50 million due to business interruption
HSE Example • Small engineering firm (15 workers) • Workers sleeve caught on rotating drill • Both bones in lower arm broken • 12 days in hospital • Off work for 3 months • Admin duties for 5 months • Unable to operate machinery for 8 months • Managing Director Prosecuted • 2 employees made redundant to prevent company going out of business
Costs to Company Wages for injured worker over period = Lost production/remedial work required = Overtime wages to cover lost production = Wages for replacement worker = Loss of time of manager/MD = Legal expenses = Fines and court costs = Increase in Insurance Premiums = £10000 £8000 £3000 £7000 £4000 £3000 £4000 £6000 Total cost to business = £45000
Typical Frameworks for regulating Health & Safety • National Policy • Regulation – Law • Standards – international, local • Enforcement • Monitoring and Review Example: UK Acts, Regulation, ACOP’s, COP’s, Guidance, BSI, HSE, HSC
International standards and conventions • ILO Labour Protection department – SAFEWORK • ILO Conventions, Recommendations and • Codes of Practice – accident reporting • Guidelines - ILO 2001 • ISO • British Standards OHSAS 18001
International standards and conventions • C155 -1981 • Convention concerning Occupational Safety and Health and the Working Environment. • Not ratified in Qatar – interestingly UK has also not ratified C155
C155 Part 2 Principles of National Policy Part 3 Action at a national level Part 4 Action at the level of the undertaking
Legal Standards • Shall • Reasonable • Practicable • So far as is ‘reasonably practicable’
C155 Governments responsible for; • Setting national policy on OH&S • Effective inspection and enforcement of relevant legislation • Providing Guidance to employers
C155 Employers Shall be required to; • Ensure that, so far as is reasonably practicable, the workplaces, machinery, equipment and processes under their control are safe and without risk to health.
C155 Employers Shall be required to; • Ensure that, so far as is reasonably practicable, the chemical, physical and biological substances and agents under their control are without risk to health when the appropriate measures of protection are taken.
C155 Employers Shall be required to; • Provide, where necessary, adequate protective clothing and protective equipment to prevent, so far as is reasonably practicable, risk of accidents or of adverse effects on health.
C155 Whenever two or more undertakings engage in activities simultaneously at one workplace, they shall collaborate in applying the requirements of this Convention.
C155 Employers shall be required to; • Provide, where necessary, for measures to deal with emergencies and accidents, including adequate first-aid arrangements.
C155 There shall be arrangements under which- • Cooperate with Employer. • Safety Representation • Information • Training • Reporting to employer
C155 Employers shall be required to; • Co-operation between management and workers and/or their representatives Occupational safety and health measures shall not involve any expenditure for the workers.
Group work • In your groups discuss the different sources of information available to Health and Safety Professionals
Sources of information • Internal • External • Primary • Secondary