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Morphology. Derivation, Inflection, and Compounding. Derivation: Inflection:. Words combine with affixes to create new words. Derivation vs. Inflection. Words combine with affixes that indicate grammatical categories (tense, plurality, case, etc.). Derivation:. Derivational Morphology.

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morphology

Morphology

Derivation, Inflection, and Compounding

derivation vs inflection
Derivation:

Inflection:

Words combine with affixes to create new words.

Derivation vs. Inflection

Words combine with affixes that indicate grammatical categories (tense, plurality, case, etc.)

derivational morphology
Derivation:Derivational Morphology

Words combine with affixes to create new words.

modern + izemodernize

read + able  readable

re + activate  reactivate

re + do + able  redoable

derivational morphology4
Derivational Morphology

What do derivational affixes do?

modern modernize

Adjective Verb

read readable

Verb Adjective

activate reactivate

Verb Verb

derivational morphology5
Derivational Morphology
  • What do derivational affixes do?
    • Can change the category, but don’t have to.
slide6

Derivational Morphology

What do derivational affixes do?

modern modernize

modernize - To make something modern

read readable

readable - Something that can be read

slide7

Derivational Morphology

What do derivational affixes do?

activate reactivate

reactivate - To activate something again

slide8

Derivational Morphology

  • What do derivational affixes do?
    • Can change the category, but don’t have to.
    • Contribute to or change the meaning of stem.
  • Are derivational affixes productive?
slide9

Derivational Morphology

    • Are derivational affixes productive?
  • -able:
  • read + able
  • do + able
  • laugh + able
  • drink + able

re-:

re + do

re + analyze

re + write

re + heat

  • -ize:
  • modern + ize national + ize
  • old + ize ?? royal + ize ??

Latin (French)

Anglo-Saxon

historical aside
Historical Aside:

English received an infusion of French words (around 10,000!) after the Norman conquest of England in 1066 AD.

The Normans (from Normandy) spoke French, and made French the official language of England for almost 300 years.

slide11

Derivational Morphology

  • What do derivational affixes do?
    • Can change the category, but don’t have to.
    • Contribute to or change the meaning of stem.
  • Are derivational affixes productive?
    • Some are, some aren’t
slide12

Derivational Morphology

    • Are derivational affixes productive?
  • un-:
  • un + do
  • un + peel
  • un + pack

un + friendly

un + usable

un + popular

un + forest??

un + coke??

un + friend??

slide13

Derivational Morphology

    • Are derivational affixes productive?
  • re-:
  • re + do - To do something again
  • re + write - To write something again
  • re + heat - To heat something again
  • I walked this morning. I rewalked this evening??
  • I cried. I recried??
  • Requires an object!! I rewalked the path.
slide14

Derivational Morphology

    • Are derivational affixes productive?
  • re-:
  • I shot the alligator. I reshot the alligator??
  • I drank the coke. I redrank the coke??
  • I killed the bug. I rekilled the bug??
  • Sensitive to state of the object!!
slide15

Derivational Morphology

  • What do derivational affixes do?
    • Can change the category, but don’t have to.
    • Contribute to or change the meaning of stem.
  • Are derivational affixes productive?
    • Some are, some aren’t
    • Restricted to particular category of stem
    • Can be restricted to a particular class (for example, re- only attaches to transitive verbs)
slide16

Inflectional Morphology

  • Inflection:

Words combine with affixes that indicate grammatical categories

write + swrites

girl + s  girls

walk + ing  walking

Mary + ’s  Mary’s

rain + ed  rained

slide17

Inflectional Morphology

  • Inflectional affixes:
    • Don’t change category
    • write, writes are both verbs
    • girl, girls are both nouns
    • Mark some grammatical category
    • girl+s s marks the plural
    • write+s s marks 3rd person, singular
    • like+d d marks past tense
slide18

Inflectional Morphology

  • Inflectional affixes:
    • Can mark agreement
    • he writes s agrees with the subject
    • *I writes not grammatical
    • In English, only suffixes
slide19

Inflectional Morphology

Inflectional affixes:

German: schreiben - to write

ich schreib+e I write

du schreib+st you write

er/sie schreib+t he/she writes

wir schreib+en we write

ihr schreib+t you (pl.) write

sie schreib+en they write

slide20

Inflectional Morphology

Inflectional affixes:

Spanish: habl - to speak

hablo I am speaking

habla he/she is speaking

hablamos we are speaking

hablan they are speaking

hablé I spoke

slide21

Inflectional Morphology

hablo I am speaking

habla he/she is speaking

hablamos we are speaking

hablan they are speaking

hablé I spoke

What do the affixes mean?

-o

-a

-amos

-an

1st person singular present tense

3rd person singular present tense

1st person plural present tense

3rd person plural present tense

1st person singular past tense

slide22

Inflectional Morphology

Inflectional affixes:

Russian: dom - house

domá - houses

dómy- in the house

domóy - on the way to home

compounding
Compounding
  • Process by which new words are formed by joining together other words, forming compounds.

land + lord  landlord

black + board  blackboard

fire + truck  fire truck

red + hot  red-hot

compounding24
Compounding
  • Not limited to a particular category:

noun + noun: bath + room

adjective + noun: wild + fire

verb + noun: swear + word

adjective + adjective: icy + hot

noun + adjective: skin + deep

compounding25
Compounding

Hard to classify compounds

(common in advertising in English):

craftsman-made furniture

chocolate-flavored cereal

up-to-the-minute styling

day-in-day-out protection

compounding26
Compounding
  • English not consistent in how compounds are written:

blackboard

high chair

hit-man

  • Compare to German: ‘Fire and life insurance co.’

Feuerundlebensversicherungsgesellschaft

compounding27
Compounding
  • English not consistent in how compounds are written:

blackboard

high chair

hit-man

  • Compare to German: ‘Fire and life insurance co.’

Feuer

+ und

+ lebens

+ versicherungs

+ gesellschaft

compounding28
Compounding
  • Compounding is a very productive source for new vocabulary in a language:

spaceman

moon-walk

hot tub

pothead

airhead

couch potato

dead meat

party animal

side kick

twenty-four seven

online

Web site

Webmaster

hyperlink

homepage

username

compounding29
Compounding

Icelandic:

lög ‘law’

lögregla ‘law’+’order’=?

‘police’

lögregluþjonn ‘law’+’order’+’servant’=?

‘policeman’

leyni+lög+reglu+maður

‘secret’+’law’+’order’+’man’=?

‘detective’

review
Review
  • Derivation:
  • Inflection:
  • Compounding:

Words combine with affixes to create new words.

Words combine with affixes that indicate grammatical categories (tense, plurality, case, etc.)

Process by which new words are formed by joining together other words, forming compounds.