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Monitoring natural reserves using wireless sensor network Yu Xinwen, Yang Yanchen, Zhang Xu Institute of Forestry Resource and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Forestry
Contents • Basic data of nature reserves in China • Current situation of nature reserves • New approach for monitoring
Basic data of nature reserves in China • Total reserves: 2349, 1.5 million sq. kilometer, 15% of land area. • 242 National reserves, 880k sq. kilometer • Forestry related reserves • Number: 1699, 72% of total reserves • Area: 1.2 M sq. kilometer, 12.49% of land area, 80% of total reserve area.
85% land ecosystem types • 85% wildlife populations • 65% flora community • 50% natural wet land • Habitat of over 300 rare and endangered wildlife species • Distribution area of over 130 species of rare trees
Current situation of nature reserves • Management issues: • Very simple management, • Not standardized • Weak infrastructure • Simple protect method
Situations: • No scouting in 25% of reserves • No resource monitoring in 75% • No scientific investigations in 70% • No any research activities in over 50%
New approach for monitoring: wireless sensor network • Sensor technology helps automatically monitor the conditions of reserves • Wireless network helps remotely acquire monitoring data in real time • Seldom labor is needed
What we want to monitor • Environmental parameters of reserves • Provide data for reserve protection and evaluation • Growth procedure of rare plants and trees • Provide data for modeling plant growth • Activities of endangered animals (mammal) • Provide data for animal protection and ethological research
Candidate reserve • Hupingshan national nature reserve, located in Hunan province (http://hps.nre.cn/eindex.asp) • Area: 66568 ha. • Aim: • Protect endangered animals and their habitats, key species: South China tiger • Protect rare plant species and community, key species: Dovetree (Davidia involucrata ) • The project will be executed in this reserve as a demonstration and will be extended to other reserves
Construct the sensor network • Easiest way: to use FieldServer, but still some issues exist • Budget raising: • The name FieldServer implies it is agriculture oriented, and our project is forestry oriented. • Also it emphasizes on Server, but not sensor network • Available Chinese names for FieldServer: 田间服务器，原野服务器，are all agriculture oriented. • Related people will not bother to know the detail of FieldServer
Key problems in application: battery life • No power supply in some area of the reserve • No enough solar energy receivable in forest • Rechargeable battery? Periodically recharge the battery
Construct own sensor system: • Must start from scratch • No much experience of using sensor • Takes long time • But may foster a team skillful to sensor network
Monitoring plant growth • Using Web accessible camera to monitor plant growth • It is relatively easy to monitor the seedling trees, diameter and height • But how to monitor the height when tree becomes very tall? • And crown or crown projection?
Height—Vertax Diameter: Web camera
Monitor animal population • The mobility of animal makes it very hard to automatically monitor the behavior and population activities. • Using portable device to record animal behavior might be an applicable approach • Portable device based recording software • Submitting data to database via sensor network
How to use monitoring data • Collaborative project • Institute of Forestry Resource and Information Technology • Responsible to constructing sensor network, software development, data management, providing data service, system maintenance. • Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection • Responsible for the data requirement, data analysis, modeling, evaluation, etc.