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  1. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT December, 2008

  2. Lecture outline • Managing workflow and conducting job analysis • Managing Diversity • Recruitment and Selecting Employees • Managing employee satisfaction, downsizing and outplacement • Rewarding performance

  3. Job Design • The process of organising work into the tasks required to perform a specific job. • Job design are influenced by • Work flow analysis • Business strategy • Organisational structure

  4. Approaches to Job Design • Industrial engineering • Human engineering: core job dimensions include skill variety; task identity; task significance and autonomy • Job design strategies: job enlargement; job enrichment and job rotation

  5. Approaches to Job Design • Work simplification • Simple and repetitive tasks • Narrowly defined tasks • No planning or organising involved • Ads: efficiency in a stable environment • Disads: inefficiency in a changing environment, boredom, high turnover, low satisfaction, lack of understanding of the bigger picture

  6. Approaches to Job Design • Job enlargement and job rotation • Enlargement: expanding a job’s duties • Rotation: rotating workers among different narrowly defined tasks without disrupting the flow of work • Job enrichment • Horizontal expansion • Vertical expansion • Team-based job design

  7. Job Analysis • The systematic process of collecting information used to make decisions about jobs. Job analysis identifies the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a particular job. Duties Tasks Responsibility

  8. Equal Employment Selection HR Planning Recruitment Job Analysis: A Basic HR Management Tool HR Research HR Development Job Analysis Employee & Labour Relations Safety & Health Compensation & Benefits Performance Appraisal 4-7

  9. Job Analysis • Job analysis seeks to answer the following: • Where does the work come from? • What equipments must be used? • What are KSAs needed to perform to job? • How much supervision necessary? • Working condition? • Performance standards • Who are suppliers and customers of the jobs

  10. Job Analysis • Methods of gathering job information • Interviews: structured interviews with job-related questions • Observations: observe the job performed to records the core job characteristics • Diaries: keep track of job activities and related data • Questionnaires: include job-related questions with quantitative scales • Mechanicals devices

  11. Job Analysis • Job analysis information helps organisations defend their actions in recruitment, promotions or terminations. • Also job analysis is useful for HR activities such as Recruitment, Selection, Performance Appraisal, Compensation, Training and Career Development • Brief description of techniques of job analysis (pp. 63 – 66)

  12. What is a good job analysis • Which job analysis method is best? • More concrete and observable information the better • Economic constraints and purposes of the analysis decide the method for job analysis • How does detailed job-analysis information fit into today’s organisations? • What are the outcomes of a job analysis job characteristics or worker characteristics

  13. Job Description • A summary statement of information collected in a job analysis. It identifies, describes, and defines a job in terms of its duties, responsibilities, working condition, and specifications. • Specific job description is associated with work flow strategies emphasize efficiency, control and detailed work planning • General job description is associated with work flow strategies emphasize innovation, flexibility and loose work planning.

  14. Elements of a Job Description • Identification information • Job summary • Job duties and responsibilities • Job specification

  15. What is Diversity • Diversity refers to human characteristics that make people different from one another • There are two broad categories of sources of individual variation • No control: race, sex, age or family and society into which he or she is born • Some control: work background, income, marital status, military experience, political beliefs, geographic location and education

  16. Assets of Diversity • Company can use diversity to gain competitive advantages and enhance effectiveness • Product development • Marketing tools • Stimulate greater creativity • Better problem solving • Greater system flexibility

  17. Diversity in Workplace • Cultural diversity among population and workforce, globalization. • Personal status, gender, physical and intellectual impairment, age, sexual preference… • Diversity management – To harness the talents of most able workers from a diversity of backgrounds

  18. Improving the Management of Diversity • Top-management commitment to valuing diversity • Create an inclusive environment • Communicate commitment to all staff • Involve all when designing the program • Avoid stereotyping • Respect affirmative action and EEOs • Recognize those who are part of a solution • All training is inclusive and ongoing • Value differences

  19. Hiring Process • Recruitment: The process of generating a pool of qualified candidates for a particular job • Selection: The process of making a “hire” or “no hire” decision regarding each applicant for a job. • Socialization: The process of orienting new employees to the organisation or the unit in which they will be working.

  20. Recruitment • Attract qualified job candidates with basicqualifications. • Recruitment sources • Current employees • Referrals from current employees • Former employees • Advertisements • Internet advertising and career sites • Employment agencies • Temporary workers • College recruiting • Customers • Non-traditional sources

  21. Recruitment Source Evaluation • Which sources are appropriate depends on • The type of job to be filled • The state of the economy (unemployment rate etc.) • Evaluating the effectiveness of the sources • How long employees recruited from different sources stay with the company • The cost of the recruitment • Quality of the recruitment source

  22. External Ads Fresh perspective and different approach Cut cost Disads Resistance from current employees Take time to familiarize Inappropriate culture Internal Ads Cut cost Motivate current employees Understand the context Disads Less innovation and new perspectives Undercut in the authority External Vs Internal Candidates

  23. Selection • The mechanism that determines the overall quality of an organisation’s human resource • Two criteria important to selection: • Reliability: consistency of measurement usually across time but also across judges. It is an index of how much errors have influenced the measure • Validity: the extent to which scores on a test or interview correspond to actual job performance. It is at the heart of effective selection. • Content validity strategy: assesses the degree to which the content of the selection method is representative of job content • Empirical validity strategy: demonstrates the relationship between the selection method and job performance

  24. Selection Tools • Any selection tools should be identified through or linked with results from job analysis • Letter of recommendation • Low validity in predicting job performance • Should use the content approach in considering LOR to increase the validity of the method • Application forms (biodata forms) • To measure applicants’ basic job specification. • Consist of questions about past jobs, present employment status, background, experience and preference • Moderate validity in predicting job performance.

  25. Selection Tools • Ability test: To measure a wide range of abilities from verbal and qualitative skills to perceptual skills • General cognitive ability (g) tests measure the verbal and qualitative ability of the job applicants. It is a valid predictor of job performance • Physical ability tests measure how safely and productively a person can perform a job’s physical task. • Work sample tests measure how well a person perform an actual task. It is a fair and valid predictor of job performance.

  26. Selection Tools • Personality test • To assess the traits of individual workers • Low reliability and validity because • traits are subjective and unreliable • unrelated to job performance • not legally acceptable • no commonly agreed-upon set of trait measures

  27. Selection Tools • Personality tests • “Big Five” factors • Extroversion: talkative, sociable, active • Agreeableness: trusting, generous, cooperative, flexible • Conscientiousness: organised, dependable • Emotional stability: secure, calm, independent • Openness to experience: intellectual, insightful, creative, curious

  28. Selection Tools • Psychological tests • To predict whether the employees will engage in a negative conduct in the work place • Consist of questions to uncover likely behaviors i.e. who is more motivated or has strong work ethics • It is a valid method if questions and scoring method are consistent and job related

  29. Selection Tools • Interviews • Traditional unstructured interview has been viewed as unreliable and low valid selections method • Differences between interviewers in assessment • Human judgment limitation and biases • Inconsistent among interviewee which is not fair and equal • Structured interview is yet a quite valid selection method • Based on a thorough job analysis and limited to job-related factors • Consist of job-related questions with predetermined answers for all interviewees • Interviewees are scored in the same way • Created and conducted through a panel of interviewers to avoid individual biases

  30. Selection Tools • Interviews • Organisational should consider both structured and unstructured interview because unstructured interview can offer • More comfortable interviewing environment • Serves more than selection • See if there is a “fit” • Easier in screening out unsuitable applicants • Questions in interviews must be legal

  31. Selection Tools • Assessment centers • A set of stimulated tasks or exercises that candidates are asked to perform. • Assess candidates’ managerial skills and abilities in four main areas: organizing, planning, decision making and leadership. • In-basket exercise is a most common type of assessment • It is a valid selection method

  32. Selection Tools • Drug tests • Applicants are tested by a urinalysis • Research has shown that it is a valid method • Honesty tests • Measure the attitudes toward honesty and integrity • It is a moderate valid predictor of job performance, however, controversial

  33. Selection Tools • Reference and background checks • It is a valid predictor • Must follow the rules • It must determine that the inquirer has a job-related need to know • Truthful information ONLY • EEO - related information should not be released • Handwriting Analysis • Analysis of the handwriting based on its slop, size, height or pressure of the writing • Reliable but not valid • Should not be used in selection process

  34. Employees Separations • Employee Separation: The termination of an employee’s membership in an organisation • Turnover rate: The rate of employee separations in an organisation • It is important for organisation to monitor and control the turnover rate and the costs of replacing employees. • Figure 6-1: Turnover rates and costs for specific job categories

  35. Costs of Employee Separations • The costs of employee separations depend on • Eliminating the position • Replacing the position • Costs of replacing employees includes • Recruitment costs • Selection costs • Training costs • Separation costs

  36. Costs of Employee Separations • Recruitment costs: The costs associated with recruiting a replacement • Advertising • Campus visits • Recruiter time • Search firm fees

  37. Costs of Employee Separations • Selection costs: The cost associated with selecting, hiring, and placing a new employee in a job. • Interviewing • Testing • Reference checks • Relocation

  38. Costs of Employee Separations • Training costs: The costs incurred in providing new employees with knowledge necessary to perform on the job • Orientation • Direct training costs • Trainers’ time • Lost productivity during training

  39. Costs of Employee Separations • Separation costs: The costs for all employees to leave. • Separation pay • Benefits • Unemployment insurance cost • Exit interview • Outplacement • Vacant position

  40. Benefits of Employee Separations • It is good to maintain a certain level of employee separations because • Reduced labor costs • Replacement of poor performers • Increased innovation • Opportunities for greater diversity

  41. Types of Employee Separation • Voluntary separations: A separation that occurs when an employee decides, for a personal or professional reasons, to end the relationship with the employer. • Involuntary separations: A separation that occurs when an employer decides to terminate its relationship with an employee due to (1) economic necessity or (2) a poor fit between the employee and the organisation.

  42. Managing Layoffs • Alternatives to layoffs • Employment policies • Deduction through attrition • Hiring freeze • Cut part-time employees • Cut internships or co-ops • Cut outsourcing • Voluntary time off • Reduced work hours

  43. Managing Layoffs • Alternatives to layoffs • Changes in job design • Transfer • Relocation • Job sharing • Demotion • Training • Retraining

  44. Managing Layoffs • Alternatives to layoffs • Pay and benefit policies • Pay freeze • Cut overtime pay • Use vacation and leave days • Pay cuts • Profit sharing or variable pay

  45. Pay for Performance • Pay-for-performance systems (incentive systems) reward employee performance on the basis of three assumptions: • Individual employees and work teams differ in how much they contribute to the firm – not only in WHAT THEY DO but also HOW WELL THEY DO IT • The firm’s overall performance depends to a large degree on the performance of individuals and groups within the firm • To attract, retain, and motivate high performers and to be fair to all employees, a company needs to rewards employees on the basis of their relative performance

  46. Challenges of Pay for Performance • The “Do only what you get paid for” syndrome • Negative effects on the spirit of cooperation • Lack of control on performance-related factors and elements • Difficulties in measuring performance • Psychological contracts • The credibility gap • Job dissatisfaction and stress • Potential reduction of intrinsic drives

  47. Types of Pay for Performance Plans Corporatewide Plans Plantwide Plans Plantwide Plans Plantwide Plans Team-Based Plans Team-Based Plans Team-Based Plans Team-Based Plans Team-Based Plans Individual-Based Plans Individual-Based Plans Individual-Based Plans Individual-Based Plans Individual-Based Plans Individual-Based Plans Individual-Based Plans Individual-Based Plans

  48. Individual-Based Plans • Individual-Based Plans are plans in which firms attempt to identify and reward the contributors of individual employees • Most commonly used PPP • Including merit pay, bonus program, and awards

  49. Individual-Based Plans • Advantages of IBP • Performance that is rewarded likely to be repeated • Individuals are goal-oriented and financial incentives can shape and individual’s goals • Assessing the performance of each employees individually helps the firm achieve individual equity • Individual-based plan fit in with an individualistic culture

  50. Individual-Based Plans • Disadvantages of IBP • Create competition and destroy cooperation among peers • Sour working relationships between subordinates and supervisor • Tying pay to goals may promote single-mindedness • Many employees do not believe that pay and performance are linked • Individual pay plans may work against achieving quality goals • Individual-based programs promote inflexibility in some organizations