HAPTICS OR TOUCH
HAPTICS--ZERO PROXEMICS • The logical end of proxemics is touching.
The logical end of proxemics is touching. Touch eliminates between people This usually signifies a special type of relationship… Or the environment causes the touch Or there is a desire for…... Changing or creating a relationship HAPTICS--ZERO PROXEMICS
FACTORS INFLUENCING • The relationship • Gender • Immediacy—desire for high level • Context: social, business, professional • Power • Equilibrium • And of course, synchrony
General Conclusions • Noncontroversial touches (gently, briefly, and on a non-sensitive part of the body) result in positive reactions. • Meaning of touch is determined by: • Context (business or social; public or private) • Nature of the contact (duration, strength, place) • Who touches (relationship, gender, and on and on)
Types of Touch • Functional-professional • Social-polite • Friendship-warmth • Love-intimacy • Sexual arousal
Sense development • Touch • Visual • Aural • As adults, we prefer: visual, aural and touch. • In America, we become “touch-starved” which many say is “sex-starved”
Children and development • First form of communication development in children • Infants depend on touch, vibration and rhythm • Children in hospitals, increased death rates, illness rates • Orphans after WWII • As development progresses, more dependent on symbolic forms
Development, continued • First 6th months, boys receive more touching • Then females receive more touch and are encouraged to touch others, • Especially after the 2nd year • Newborns receive more touch than 14 months to 2 year olds • Development of healthy individuals seems related to amount of touch they receive as infants
Development, continued • Mothers touch more than fathers • Through the junior high years, most touching occurs in same sex dyads • Black children touched more than other races, in the United States
Burgoon and Saine • Touch needs in infancy result in four major values • biological--basic needs • communicative--when fed, cuddled • psychological--self-exploration, process of self-identity • social--children who receive touch are able to interact more successfully
Animal Studies • Harlow and Zimmerman--monkey, surrogate mother • Child would spend time with cloth model, who did not have food • not wire model that dispensed food • Washoe • would not allow other chimps contact with her • craved the human touch
REASONS TO TOUCH • Give encouragement • Express tenderness • Show emotional support • Give security • Sexual contact
Giving information or advice, not asking for it Give an order, not responding to it Asking a favor, not granting one Persuading, not being persuaded Deep, not casual, conversation Party situation, not work Communicating excitement, not receiving it Receiving worry, not sending it Henley’s Situations of Touch
Touch Norms • Situation—purpose, why
Touch Norms • Situation—purpose, why • Context--where
Touch Norms • Situational--why • Contextual—where • Interactants--who
Touch as positive affect Touch as negative affect Touch as play Touch as Influence Touch as interaction management Touch as interpersonal responsiveness Touch as accidental Touch as task-related Touch as healing Implied Interpretations
What people say about touch… • Germans are careful not to touch accidentally or to encourage signs of intimacy. In northern Europe, one does not touch others. Even the brushing of the overcoat sleeve used to elicit an apology • Many Latin Americans are touch-oriented and may linger over a handshake, which usually is somewhat soft, or touch your forearm or elbow. These touches signify friendliness and nothing more. • Asians' personal-space requirements are similar to U.S. standards, and touching generally is avoided.
What people say about touch… • In Italy, friends may greet each other with a kiss. • Do not touch anyone’s head in India. The head is considered sensitive. • Never hug, kiss or touch a Finn. • Within 30 minutes of arrival at Athens airport, I was given my first taste of Greek culture as two men across the room, presumably a father and brother, rushed to embrace and kiss each cheek of their relative. There was no hesitation, nor were emotions held back.