FLEET SAFETY Presented by Evergreen Safety Council
Why Accident Prevention? • Annual MVA deaths average 47,000 • In Oregon, the past 5 years motor vehicle crashes is the leading cause of workplace deaths
In Oregon, 32% of the 37 compensable deaths in 2006 were from motor vehicle crashes • Nationwide this accounts for someone dying every 12 minutes, injured every 10 seconds, and crashing every 5 seconds.
ORS 654.010 Safe Employment Act Every employer shall… furnish employment and a place of employment which are safe and healthful for employees therein, and shall do every other thing reasonably necessary to protect the life, safety and health of such employees.
Collision Costs • One of the largest dollar losses • Liability • Even with insurance – pay in the long run • Employee injuries • Direct cost • Indirect cost
Costs – Direct and Indirect. Production delays Time lost by workers and supervisors attending the victim Clean up and start up of interrupted services Investigation costs Training new workers to replace injured workers Reduced morale and efficiency Increased insurance premiums Medical-hospital-rehab Workers Compensation Administrative Cost Negative Media Attention Lost Business Prosecution-Fines-Litigation Accident Cost
Goals for Success • Establish written policy • Identify authority • Establish financial policy • Keep fleet operations competitive • Coordinate fleet activities and provide equipment management system • Integrate safety into ALL aspects
Elements of a Driving Safety Program • Written policy • Driver/fleet safety officer • Driver selection • Driver training • Driver supervision • Equipment selection and maintenance • Accident reporting/analysis • Awards program
Policy Benchmarks • Written policy • Delegate responsibilities • Develop enforcement policies • Delegate training responsibilities • Develop driver responsibilities
Policy Elements • Top Management Statement & Signature of concern for the safety and health of drivers • Administration--Responsibilities & Accountabilities • Safety rules for vehicle operation ( fleet committee) • Driver recruitment, selection & evaluation • NEO--Orientation and driver training • Incident/ Accident Reporting and Analysis • Vehicle Selection, Inspection, maintenance • Emergency Equipment
Management Benchmarks • Centralize fleet management • Management • Cost control • FMSCR responsibilities • Replacement • Establish performance measures
Employment Benchmarks • Hiring Criteria - (Matrix) • Written Job Descriptions • Background Checks • Number of moving violations (repeat) • Severity of moving violations • Prior license suspensions • Previous crashes or incidents • Criminal record • DUI History Policy states what disqualifies an employee from driving!
Safety hierarchy established Life safety Environment Property Involve everyone from top down Management commitment Employee involvement Accountability Hazard ID & control Effective Training Accident investigation Periodic evaluation Fleet Safety Benchmarks
Training Benchmarks • Reduce the number of Collisions • Establish professional competent well trained drivers to represent your company • Reduce maintenance costs • Reduce Supervisory Burden- cites, crashes etc. • Improves Public Relations • Organized approach to prevent repeating mistakes • Risk Management
EverSafe Training Flexibility in program content which meets the specific needs of the Organization. Front End Needs Assessment
Cornerstone is management Management must be convinced safety is a good investment– R.O.I. Management must be willing to provide leadership Enthusiasm for safety Set good example Sincerity Safety Program Elements
Reports that show total cost of collisions (direct & indirect) Publish clear, understandable safety policy Large fleets need a safety professional Make clear to all levels of management they are responsible for preventing collisions Budget sufficient funds (training, equipment, etc) Provide personal leadership From the Start
Driver Selection • General ability to perform the tasks • Driver License check • Look for experience
What is a Good Driver? • Drives legally • Avoids collisions • Performs non-driving parts of the job • Adapts to meet conditions • Positive traits
Selection Procedures • Recruit well qualified check with • Current employees • Industry contacts • Others (i.e., Voc Schools) • Driving test • Interview • Check references • Skill test
Driver Fundamentals • Safe driving skills is paramount • Good program improves skills • Safe driving is not simple • Requires ability to make traffic decisions quickly • Safe driving has an economic dimension
Truck Driver – Analysis(ElectronicTattletale) • Fuel Consumption • Brake Demand • Torque Demand (shock load) • Lateral Acceleration • Tachometry • ABS Activity • ESC Activity • Clutch Brake Replacement • Monitoring Driver Rest Time • Exceeding Speed Limits • Deviation Planned Route • Cell phone Use- while in Motion ( Policy)
Training Program Development • When • First hired • Refresher • Remedial • Where • Classroom • Over the road
What to Teach • Company’s collision problems • Traffic regulations • Causes of collisions • Personal traits affecting driving • Defensive driving • Backing • Stopping distance • Individual Company needs.
Additional Topics • Intersections • Parking Lots • Inclement Weather (fog, snow, ice, heat) • Defensive Driving , ABS, GPS • Railroad Hazards • Water Hazards • Fatigue • Distractions • Under the Influence • Night – headlights, parking lights, fog lights. • Right of Way • Age ( younger drivers, older drivers, infants) • Pedestrians, bicyclists, Children, School Zones • Following Distance • Road Rage • Construction Zones • Blind Spots • Load Securement • Seatbelts- Airbags
Skill Testing • Parallel parking • Alley dock • Offset alley • Forward serpentine • Backward serpentine • Straight line • Stop line
Going too fast Going too slow Tailgating Bad passing Failure to use turn signals Poor lane discipline Not allowing to merge Failure to yield Ignoring red lights and stop signs Blocking intersections Bad manners Ignorance The Dirty Dozen of Driving
Equipment Failure On a fleet basis, is anyone at the helm? Is anyone watching similarities of failure? Accident Repetition – Equipment Failure Cost
Inspections • Driver Inspections • Pre-trip to ensure safe to operation • Post-trip to notify of any potential problems • Periodic • Annual • Qualified inspector • Appendix G, subchapter B 49 CFR
Whether Commercial vehicles, the shop forklift or vehicles located within the organization, Inspection criteria needs to be established and individual accountabilities defined. Inspection Criteria1-800- Call my Dad
Vehicle Selection • Select the proper tool for the job. • Will you be transporting a crew? • Driver Safety- ergonomics, comfort • Cargo-size, load position, liquid, racks? • Pulling a trailer-capacity (now or future) • Crashworthiness - www.nhtsa.dot.gov. • Features- airbags, GPS, fog-lights, backup alarm, rear vision monitor, ABS, lift-gates, air ride seat, stability- suspension, tires, mirrors.
Cost Availability Standardization – Better for fleet operations Order size Maintenance convenience Operational convenience Fuel savings Safety equipment Purchase with Safety in Mind
Commercial Vehicle Safety • Rollover Prevention • Drowsy Driver Warning • Lane Tracking • In-Cab Safety Advisory System • Automatic Collision Notification System • Collision Avoidance Radar • Disk Brakes- Electronic Braking system
ESC– Electronic Stability Control are systems to help drivers prepare or avoid potential crashes. Next to seat belts, ESC is the most important piece of safety equipment available. Projections indicate that ESC will provide for a 35% reduction in vehicle crashes and a 67% reduction in SUV crashes. • Rollover Protection- Currently Rollover occurs during 3% of vehicle crashes but accounts for about 33% of all fatalities. For the future, door locks will activate automatically within vehicles during rollover. Tethers within vehicles will keep occupants inside the vehicle even if seat belts are not worn.
Back-over Avoidance Technology- 200 deaths occur each year in the US for both children and adults as a result of being backed over- Sonar, Ultra-sonic and cameras with audible and visual alarms are on the market & in use today. • Vehicle to Vehicle- Device sending steering wheel vibration to driver of potential collision. Audible and visual warning is also activated.
ECC- Enhanced Cruise Control- Intelligent cruise control radar sensor from the front bumper to the vehicle ahead of you which automatically adjusts your speed for a safe following distance between vehicles. • LDP- Lane Departure PreventionSystem -Camera identifies lane markers and provides both audible and visual alarm if vehicle departs lane without reason or signal; the vehicle will then automatically intervene.
Emergency Equipment • Communication ( 2 way radio/ Cell phone • First Aid Kit • Flashlight (batteries or wind up) • Reflective Safety Vest • Space Blanket • Fire Extinguisher • Tire inflator/sealant • Reflective triangles/ fusees/flares • Cold Weather emergency items- food/water Who is responsible for ensuring emergency equipment is in place for each vehicle?
Future • DCA- Distance Control Assist- when the foot comes off the accelerator, the vehicle automatically brakes in order to help driver maintain proper following distance – visual and sound indicator located on the dash. • Front Pre- Drive– Positions driver seat for the individual driver size to maximize control ability.
Alcohol/ Drug Use & Vehicle Operation Proof of Concept for Society • Alcohol Detection- Transmission handle & steering wheel – thru perspiration of palms and hands, alcohol will be detected and vehicle will shut down. • Cabin Air- Detection of alcohol in the vehicle cabin locks vehicle out of service. • Facial Monitoring- State of consciousness detects inattentive driving. • Vehicle Monitoring- monitors erratic driving and provides message to driver prior to shut down.
Have a Written Fleet Safety Program Establish Fleet goals and benchmarks Have a good driver selection and training process Have a strong fleet management program including research, procurement and replacement. Ensure Fleet Longevity through a sound maintenance program Periodic Program Review Have Fleet Safety Manger Summary
Management Leadership Administration Operational Environment Driver Selection/Qualification Driver Evaluation Vehicle Selection Emergency Equipment Vehicle Inspections Vehicle Maintenance Incident/Accident Analysis/Reporting Putting it all Together