1. Figures of speech are universal to language. Figures of Speech. 2. If we miss a figure of speech we will likely misunderstand the AIM (Jn 2:19-20; 6:51-52; 7:34-35; 8:51-52; 11:11-12; 14:4-5). 3. Figurative does NOT mean untrue or less important. (E.g. transubstantiation, millennialism.).
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2. If we miss a figure of speech we will likely misunderstand the AIM (Jn 2:19-20; 6:51-52; 7:34-35; 8:51-52; 11:11-12; 14:4-5).
3. Figurative does NOT mean untrue or less important. (E.g. transubstantiation, millennialism.)
4. Definition: Language used in non-literal ways.
1. It should be considered literal unless there is a valid reason to take it figuratively.
2. Would the literal meaning cause an absurdity or an inconsistency?
3. Would the literal meaning contradict other Scripture?
4. Would it cause an immorality (cf. Mt 18:8-9; Jn 6:53-58). Caution: Gen 22!
5. The author may clearly identify it as a figure (Jn 7:37-38)
6. Sometimes there is a qualifying adjective (cf. Mt 6:14; Jn 6:32; 1 Pt 2:4; Eph 6:17).
7. Poetic or prophetic genre or symbolic terminology (colors, numbers, images).
8. Use common sense – what is the “feel” of the passage?
1. The Author’s explanation is best and final.
2. Consider the author’s intention and the nature of the subject beyond just the figure itself.
3. Read the literal comments about the non-figure which is illustrated by the figure.
4. Notice whether the main point of comparison is identified (cf. 1 Kgs 12:4).
1. Identify the point(s) of comparison between the non-figure and the figure.
2. Each point of comparison is used in only on way. Don’t go crazy here.
3. Work out the major points first, then go on to the minor ones.
4. Distinguish between essential and embellishing details of the analogy.
1. Historical and biographical research will help greatly since figures are based on the historical and cultural reality of the author.
2. Figures are often used to explain figures.
3. The natural meaning(s) are most likely.
4. Use parallel passages, but cautiously – figures do not always mean the same thing in different contexts.
Greek = Tupos (15x): Imprint (Jn 20:25), blueprint (Acts 7:44, Heb 8:5), example (1 Cor 10:6; Php 3:17; 1 Thess 1:7; 2 Thess 3:9; 1 Tim 4:12; Titus 2:7; 1 Pt 5:3).
Antitype (2x): Baptism, 1 Pt 3:21 and Tabernacle, Heb 9:24.
Most of them revolve around the Christ, the Cross, and the Christian (see chart).
1. Resemblance – one thing to another.
2. Historic Reality – not just an analogy.
3. Prefiguring – predictive/foreshadowing.
4. Heightening – The N.T. thing is bigger.
5. Divine Design – not made up by me.
6. Apologetic value – because of #5
7. Not “interesting and profitable lessons.”
1. Determine the literal sense of the type.
2. Note the specific point(s) of comparison.
3. Note the specific area(s) of contrast.
4. Note the direct N.T. assertions that verify the typological correspondence.
5. Use as pictures in preaching.
6. Don’t base typology on colors, numbers, materials or shapes.
7. Avoid dogmatism when the N.T. is unclear.
A sign which suggests meaning rather than stating it.
1. A type is a real historical entity, a symbol may not be.
2. Types/Antitypes span both testaments. Symbols can stand alone in either.
3. Types may have multiple points of connection. Symbols have but one.
4. Types may have multiple referents (e.g. Lion [1 Pt 5:8; Rev 5:5]).
1. Objects: blood (Heb 1:3), Rainbow (Gen 9).
2. Actions: Laying on hands, tearing clothes.
3. Ordinances: Baptism, Eucharist.
4. Materials: Bronze (Rev 1:5), linens (Rev 19:8).
5. Numbers: 1, 2-3, 3 ½, 7, 10, 12, 144.
6. Colors: Purple, white, red.
7. Names, especially when they are changed: Eve (Gen 3:20), Abram (Gen 17:5), Peter.