ENVI 121 Life in the Ocean - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

envi 121 life in the ocean l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
ENVI 121 Life in the Ocean PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
ENVI 121 Life in the Ocean

play fullscreen
1 / 18
ENVI 121 Life in the Ocean
304 Views
Download Presentation
Faraday
Download Presentation

ENVI 121 Life in the Ocean

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. ENVI 121Life in the Ocean • Dr. Ron Kaufmann • kaufmann@sandiego.edu • Shiley Center 277 (x5904) • Office Hrs: Tue, Thu 8:00-10:30 • www.sandiego.edu/~kaufmann/envi121/envi121.html • AIM: rskusd

  2. What is Marine Biology? • Biology of organisms inhabiting the ocean • Marine biologists study different things at different levels • Related to oceanography, particularly biological oceanography • Coastal vs. Open Ocean • Perspective: Organismal vs. Environmental • Studying marine organisms requires understanding of physical/chemical environment

  3. History • Early • Aristotle – Described forms, recognized gills • Explorers (Eriksson, Columbus, Magellan, Drake) – Learned about winds, currents, physical characteristics • Cook (1768-1779) – Took full-time naturalist on crew • Darwin (1831-1836) – Sailed on HMS Beagle • Collected plankton • Proposed theory of coral atoll formation • Studied and described barnacles

  4. History • Oceanographic Expeditions • Began in mid 1800s • Edward Forbes (BBBB - British) • Father of Biological Oceanography • Sampled sea floor life extensively • First to recognize that different organisms are found at different depths • Before Forbes’ time, many people regarded the deep ocean as azoic • Early work by Wyville Thomson showed life on deep sea floor

  5. History • The Challenger Expedition (1872-1876) • British scientists convinced government to fund oceanographic expedition • HMS Challenger • Refitted warship • Departed England in Dec 1872 • Expedition lasted three and a a half years • Collected samples and provided unprecedented insights into diversity of marine life • Data took 19 years to publish in 50 large volumes • First extensive exploration of life in the ocean • Paved the way for modern marine biology

  6. Track of HMS Challenger1872 - 1876 Fig. 1.4

  7. Marine Labs • Stazione Zoologica (Naples) • Founded in 1872 by German scientists • Marine Biological Lab (Plymouth, England) • Founded in 1879 • Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole) • Established in 1888 • Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SD) • Opened in 1903 • Hopkins Marine Station (CA) • Friday Harbor Marine Laboratory (WA)

  8. Modern Marine Biology • Involved the development of new technology for studying marine life • SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging) • Developed during World War II to help engage in submarine warfare

  9. SONAR Fig. 1.6

  10. Modern Marine Biology • SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging) • SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) • Invented in late 1940s by Cousteau and Gagnan • Allows scientists to work underwater for extended periods of time

  11. Modern Marine Biology • SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging) • SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) • Oceanographic Research Vessels • Ships (Melville, Revelle, Thompson) • Submersibles (Alvin, Johnson Sea Link) • ROVs/AUVs (Jason, Tiburon, Ventana) • Other vessels (FLIP)

  12. DSV Alvin R/V Thomas G. Thompson R/V FLIP

  13. ROV Jason Theseus IFREMER AUV

  14. Modern Marine Biology SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging) SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) Oceanographic Research Vessels Computers Processing of large data sets Collection of sophisticated information

  15. Link Fig. 1.14

  16. www7320.nrlssc.navy.mil/IASNFS_WWW/IASNFS_ssh.html

  17. Modern Marine Biology • SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging) • SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) • Oceanographic Research Vessels • Computers • Remote Sensing • Use of satellites to monitor ocean • Especially useful for studying large scale features and processes

  18. Fig. 1.15