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Emotion. The experience of feelings Can activate and affect behavior but it is more difficult to predict the behavior prompted by a motivation. Fear Surprise Sadness Disgust. Anger Anticipation Joy Acceptance. Basic Emotions. Plutchik proposed that there are eight basic emotions.

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emotion
Emotion
  • The experience of feelings
  • Can activate and affect behavior but it is more difficult to predict the behavior prompted by a motivation
basic emotions
Fear

Surprise

Sadness

Disgust

Anger

Anticipation

Joy

Acceptance

Basic Emotions
  • Plutchik proposed that there are eight basic emotions
basic emotions4
Basic Emotions
  • Some have criticized Plutchik’s model as applying only to English-speakers
  • Primary vs. Secondary Emotions
    • Be evident in all cultures
    • Contribute to survival
    • Distinct facial expression
    • Evident in Nonhuman primates
  • Revised model of basic emotions includes:
    • Happiness
    • Surprise
    • Sadness
    • Fear
    • Disgust
    • Anger
theories of emotion
Theories of Emotion

Emotions are a mix of 1) physiological activation, 2) expressive behaviors, and 3) conscious experience.

controversy
Controversy
  • Does physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience?
  • Does cognition (thinking) precede emotion (feeling)?
theories
Theories
  • James-Lange Theory
  • Cannon-Bard Theory
  • Schachter-Singer Theory
  • Opponent Process Theory
  • Cognitive-Appraisal Theory
james lange theory
James-Lange Theory

William James and Carl Lange proposed an idea that was diametrically opposed to the common-sense view. The James-Lange Theory proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience.

2 james lange theory
2. James-Lange theory

Body = emotion

“Without the bodily states following on the perception, the latter would be purely cognitive in form; pale, colorless, destitute of emotional warmth. We might then see the bear, and judge it best to run... But we should not actually feel afraid.” (William James, 1890)

James, 1890, v. 2, p. 449 (Gleitman)

2 james lange theory12
2. James-Lange theory
  • Testing the theory:
  • Hypothesis 1: You need the body in order to feel emotions.
  • Test: Interview people with high vs. low spinal cord injuries

High spinal cord injury:

“Sometimes I act angry... But it doesn’t have the heat to it that it used to. It’s a mental kind of anger.”

Hohman, 1966, pp. 150-151 (Carlson)

2 james lange theory13
2. James-Lange theory
  • Testing the theory:
  • Hypothesis 1: You need the body in order to feel emotions.
    • Results 1: The body may be necessary to have a full emotional experience.
2 james lange theory14
2. James-Lange theory
  • Testing the theory:
  • Hypothesis 1: You need the body in order to feel emotions
    • Results 1: The body may be necessary to have a full emotional experience.
  • Hypothesis 2: All you need is your body to know what emotion to feel.
2 james lange theory15

FEAR

2. James-Lange theory
  • Situation  bodily reaction  emotion

 

or

LOVE?

2 james lange theory16
2. James-Lange theory
  • Testing the theory:
  • Hypothesis 1: You need the body in order to feel emotions
    • Results 1: The body may be necessary to have a full emotional experience.
  • Hypothesis 2: The body can tell you precisely which emotion to feel.
    • Test: Gave people a dose of adrenaline:

“I feel as if I’m angry or afraid”

2 james lange theory17
2. James-Lange theory
  • Testing the theory:
  • Hypothesis 1: You need the body in order to feel emotions
    • Results 1: The body may be necessary to have a full emotional experience.
  • Hypothesis 2: The body can tell you precisely which emotion to feel.
    • Results 2: The body is not ALL that is necessary to have a fully emotional experience.
facial feedback
Facial-Feedback
  • Stimuls invokes physiological arousal including movement of facial muscles
  • Brain interprets facial expression which gives rise to your emotion
  • Sequence
    • Stimulus (See snake)
    • Make a face (fearful)
    • Brain reads face
    • Emotion (fear)
cannon bard theory
Cannon-Bard Theory

Walter Cannon and Phillip Bard questioned the James-Lange Theory and proposed that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body's arousal take place simultaneously.

cannon bard theory20
Cannon-Bard Theory
  • See snake, run and fear simultaneous
  • Stimulus to thalamus -- sends simultaneous messages to:
    • Lymbic system (arousal)
    • Cortex (fear)
schachter singer theory two factor theory
Schachter-Singer TheoryTwo-Factor Theory

Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed yet another theory which suggests our physiology and cognitions create emotions. Emotions have two factors–physical arousal and cognitive label.

3 the schachter theory

FEAR

LOVE

3. The Schachter theory
  • Situation  bodily reaction  emotion

+ cognitive appraisal

3 the schachter theory23

LOVE

3. The Schachter theory
  • Testing the theory:
  • Hypothesis: The same bodily reaction will cause one emotion in one situation, and another emotion in a different situation.
    • Give people a dose of adrenaline;
    • Put them in different situations;
    • What happens?

FEAR

3 the schachter theory24
3. The Schachter theory
  • Testing the theory:
  • Schachter & Singer 1962:

(didn’t take pill)

(know what

pill does)

Least angry

VERY ANGRY!

Medium angry!

VERY EXCITED!

Least excited

Medium excited!

opponent process theory
Opponent Process Theory
  • Opponent process theory suggests that any given emotion also has an opposed emotion. (Fear/Relief or Sadness/Happiness)
  • Activation of one member of the pair automatically suppresses the opposite emotion
  • But the opposing emotion can serve to diminish the intensity of the initial emotion.
opponent process theory26
Opponent-Process Theory
  • Solomon and Corbit (1974)
    • The opponent-process theory states that when one emotion is experienced, the other is suppressed. For example, if you are frightened by a mean dog, the emotion of fear is expressed and relief is suppressed. If the fear-causing stimulus continues to be present, after a while the fear decreases and the relief intensifies.
cognitive appraisal theory
Cognitive-Appraisal Theory
  • Sequence
    • Stimulus (object, event, or thought)
    • Appraisal of how this affects your well-being (consciously or unconsciously)
    • Emotion (fear, anger, happiness, …)
    • Physiological responses and behavior
  • For an emotion to occur, it is necessary to first think about the situation.
cognition can define emotion
Cognition Can Define Emotion

An arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event. Spill over effect

AP Photo/ Nati Harnik

Reuters/ Corbis

Arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which may lead to rioting.

Arousal fuels emotion, cognition channels it.

cognition and emotion
What is the connection between how we think (cognition) and how we feel (emotion)?

Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking?

Cognition and Emotion