Eastland Steamer - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Faraday
eastland steamer l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Eastland Steamer PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Eastland Steamer

play fullscreen
1 / 24
Download Presentation
Eastland Steamer
943 Views
Download Presentation

Eastland Steamer

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Eastland Steamer Danielle Lacko MEP-200-01 March 2, 2001

  2. Topics of Discussion • Background • What Happened • Causes • Results of Disaster

  3. Background • Commissioned in 1903 • Occurred July 24, 1915 at 7:30 AM • Western Electric Picnic • Occurred on the Chicago River (downtown) • It was docked

  4. What Happened • 6:40 passengers started boarding • 6:41 ship began to list starboard • 6:48 port ballast 2 and 3 were partially filled • 6:53 ship lists to port- starboard ballast 2 was partially filled • 7:07 water was emptied from port ballast 3 • 7:10 no more passengers allowed on board • 7:10-7:15 listing to port increased to 10-15 degrees

  5. What Happened • 7:16 tried to fill starboard ballast 2 and 3 • 7:18 ship righted itself • 7:20 port list returned- water came on ship- stopped the engines • 7:23 list became worse • 7:27 list reached angle of 25-30 degrees • 7:28 list reached 45 degrees • 7:30 capsized

  6. What it looked like

  7. Causes • Metacentric Height • Ballast System • Management/Human Error

  8. Metacentric Height • WHAT IS IT??? • Measure of stability of a ship in the water • Positive, negative, zero metacentric height

  9. Positive Height -The Ship’s Metacenter is above the center of gravity -Righting arms are created -The ship rights itself

  10. Negative Height -Center of gravity is above the metacenter -Negative righting arms -Ship capsizes

  11. Zero Height -Metacenter and center of gravity at the same point -No righting arms -Stays at incline

  12. Metacentric Height • Original design had a metacentric height of 18 inches • 60ft of length taken away (lower metacentric height) • Another deck added (top-heavy) • Thought it was for freight • Addition of Ellis and Eaves Draft System (speed) and McCreery System of Air-Conditioning (cooling)

  13. Metacentric Height cont. • Sleeping compartments taken out • Concrete added (15-20 tons) • Addition of lifeboats due to sinking of the Titanic (LaFollette’s Seaman’s Act) • There was an easy inclination test to measure and calculate the height- never done

  14. Ballast System • WHAT IS IT??? • Large tanks at the bottom of a ship • Used to stabilize the ship by emptying and filling tanks with water

  15. Ballast System cont. • Eastland had twelve tanks • Water was pulled into pipe • Connected to a manifold • Into desired tank • The tanks were different sizes

  16. Problems with the Ballast System • There were no gages- time was used • Same manifold used for water to leave ballast tanks • Water couldn’t be pumped from tanks on one side to the other • Slow process of opening and closing different tank valves

  17. Errors During the Disaster • 6:48 port ballast 2 and 3 filled- dangerous due to negative height • Free surface effect • Shifted list to port side • 7:07 water emptied from port ballast 3 • Didn’t empty port ballast 2 • Still weight below center of gravity • 7:16 starboard ballast 2 and 3 wouldn’t fill

  18. Management/Human Error • New Chief Engineer in 1915, Joseph Erickson • He was used to working on ships with a long metacentric height • No one discussed addition of lifeboats with him • He was not told that the changes may have cause the metacentric height to be negative with a heavy load • He didn’t know the capacity had been increased • He didn’t know the ship should be handled differently

  19. Results • 841 passengers died- more passengers than died on Titanic (829) • 22 families were wiped out • Worst disaster in terms of loss of life in history of Chicago • Morgue was set up in the Armory because there were so many dead that needed to be identified

  20. What it looked like

  21. Another View

  22. Why people died • People were stuck in the lower decks • They were crushed or drowned

  23. References • American Red Cross. Eastland Disaster Relief. Chicago, Illinois: American Red Cross, 1918. • Bowen, Dana Thomas. Lore of the Lakes. Cleveland, Ohio: Freshwater Press Inc., 1969. • Davis, Lee. Man Made Catastrophes. New York, New York: Facts on File Inc., 1993. • “Engineer’s Report Blames Eastland Disaster on Poor Design, Overloading and Mishandled Ballast.” Engineering Record 21 Aug. 1915: 221-222. • Griggs, John. “Excursion to Death.” American Heritage Feb. 1965: 32-35. • Hilton, George W. Eastland Legacy of the Titanic. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1995. • “Probable/Possible Causes.” Eastland Disaster Historical Society. Home Page. 1998-2001 < http://www.eastlanddisaster.org/causes.htm>.

  24. References • “The Eastland Disaster of 1915” <http://www2.novagate.net/~bonevelle/eastland/background.html> • “The Capsizing of the ‘Eastland’.” Engineering News 29 July. 1915: 225-227. • “Chicago Historical Information.” Chicago Public Library. December 1996 <http://cpl.lib.uic.edu/004chicago/disasters/eastland_photos.html> • “Photos.” Chicago Historical Society. 1998-2001 <http://www.eastlanddisaster.org/postcards.htm>