The Framework • A set of terms and relationships within which the problem is formulated and solved. It is the foundation on which the research will be done. The purposes of the framework are to:
The Framework • A. Helps develop a sufficient understanding of the problem area • Basic facts about the problem • Areas if agreement and disagreement • Explanations of behaviors and interactions • B Allows many people to conduct research within the same frame of reference so that bit by bit larger generalizations can be formed
The Framework • C. Allows you to make assumptions so you don’t have to research every point • D. Helps to identify and define the study variables • Who or what will be the subject(s) • Variables needed to explain certain phenomena • Relationships to systematically explain why certain things may work • E. Provides the basis for generating hypotheses or predictions about the outcome
The Framework • Theories • Purpose • summarize existing knowledge – allows you to condense a large body of knowledge into a coherent structure • explains observations • allows prediction and control of outcomes • Stimulate new discoveries
The Framework • Nature of theory • Origin • Theories are not discovered by scientists – they are created by them • Theories are congruent with reality and existing knowledge • Components • A set of concepts –abstract characteristics, categories, labels • A set of statements about relationships or a set of propositions each indicating a relationship • Mechanisms for arriving at new propositions
Example: • Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (Stress Theory) • Concepts – Stress, GAS, General Defense Mechanisms (GDM), Specific Defense Mechanisms(SDM) • Relationships – occur between stress and the body’s defense mechanisms which are activated to cope with the stress
Example cont. • Propositions: • Humans seek to reduce stress by mobilizing the body’s GDM to overact. • When the SDM for dealing with the source of stress is identified by the body, the overactivity of the GDM will subside and the SDM overacts. • If the SDM is unable to cope with the stress, then the GDM reactivates to help the body adjust. • During the alarm and exhaustion phases, there is an increase in the production of ACTH which subsides during the resistance phase when the SDM comes into play.
Example cont. • New proposition or statement: • Since the level of ACTH varies with the stage of the GAS, • the level of ACTH will be greater before a meal than it is after a meal, • The level of ACTH immediately prior to an IV infusion will be greater than during the infusion • Measurement of ACTH should give us an idea of how well the person is coping with stress
The Framework • The tentative nature of theories • They are invented by humans and are never free from the human perspective • They can never be proved, they can only be supported • The relationship between theory and research • They are mutually beneficial • Theory is built inductively by research observations • Theory is tested deductively in practice • Hypotheses deducted from theory further research • Non-theoretical research can be linked later to theory
Examples of Theories: • Social Learning Theory • Locus of Control Theory • Kinesthetic Need Theory • Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Forced Field Theory • Reinforcement Theory • Systems Theory
The Framework • Conceptual Frameworks or Schemes • Less formal, less well-developed attempts at organizing phenomena • Their concepts name properties of nature – not relationships • They consist of many concepts and systems that are loosely organized in a structural whole. • They do not contain formal propositions. • They do allow inductively derived hypotheses
Examples of Conceptual Frameworks • Orem • Neuman • Roy • King • Watson • Levine • Peplau • Rogers
The Framework • Models –symbolic representations of phenomena –depict some aspect of the environment figuratively – They can also be used to simplify a theory or a conceptual framework • Mental models – fire • Physical models • Icons – printer icon on computer • Analog models – EKG • Symbolic models • Verbal • Schematic • Quantitative
The Framework • Classification of models according to structure • Physical –represent structure • Behavioral – represents performance • Static – what’s happening at a given point • Dynamic –time is considered as a variable • Micro –focus on individuals • Macro – focus on aggregates • Comprehensive – identifies many variables • Partial – identifies few variables in detail • Descriptive – things as they are or act • Decision – explain or predict
Other Examples of Models • Health Belief Model (Rosenstock) • Purchase –of-Expertise Consultation Model (Schein) • Physician-Client Consultation Model • Process Consultation Model (Schein) • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Logical Frameworks • These are frameworks that spring from your logical depiction of what you are planning to study – the variables and their relationships. • These are used only if you can not find a framework into which your problem fits. • They must help the reader understand your logic.
The Framework • Definitions – terms used in the framework must be defined. These definitions are conceptual definitions and they should usually stem from the literature • Assumptions – these are judgments about phenomena which the researcher makes in terms of his/her own perceptions of the world in which he/she lives. The soundest ones come from the literature and general theory, then from professional judgment and experience.
The Framework • Delimitations – these a restatements of the limits that you have to place on your research. For instance, you wish to study nurses in Southeast Tennessee, or in Hamilton County or in District # 4 TNA. • Limitations are built-in conditions which influence the conclusions that you can draw – they are inherent weaknesses that you should have taken care of. Back to Class 5