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Chapter 10 Inside the Internet and the Web Topics “It’s a bit like climbing a mountain. You don’t know how far you’ve come until you stop and look back.” Vint Cerf The Internet: A Network of Networks Internet Applications: Communication and Connection Inside the World Wide Web

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chapter 10

Chapter 10

Inside the Internet and the Web

topics
Topics

“It’s a bit like climbing a mountain. You don’t know how far you’ve come until you stop and look back.”

Vint Cerf

The Internet: A Network of Networks

Internet Applications: Communication and Connection

Inside the World Wide Web

The Evolving Internet

the internet a network of networks
The Internet: A Network of Networks

The Internet is an interconnected network of thousands of networks linking academic, research, government, and commercial institutions.

internet services
Internet Services

The Internet provides scientists, engineers, educators, students, business people, and others with a variety of services such as:

  • Electronic mail (send/receive mail messages)
  • Remote login(Telnet - access to other computers)
internet services5
Internet Services
  • Transferring files(FTP - accessing archives of data)
  • Newsgroups(Usenet - on-line public discussions)
  • World Wide Web(a collection of multimedia documents)
counting connections
Counting Connections

Today, the Internet connects computers to about every country in the world. However, the Internet is:

  • growing too fast to measure its growth
  • too decentralized to quantify
  • a network with no hard boundaries
internet protocols
Internet Protocols

The language at the heart of the Internet is TCP/IP…

  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
  • Allows cross-network communication
internet protocols8
Internet Protocols

TCP breaks messages into packets

  • Each packet has all the information needed to travel from network to network
  • Host systems called Routers determine how to route transmissions
internet protocols9
Internet Protocols

IP is the address for the packets

  • Each Internet host computer has a unique IP Address
  • Each address is comprised of four sets of numbers separated by periods, such as 123.23.168.22
internet addresses
Internet Addresses
  • The host is named using DNS (domain name system), which translates IP addresses into a string of names.

“Each person on the “Internet” has a unique e-mail “address” created by having a squirrel run across a computer keyboard.”

Dave Barry

internet addresses11
Internet Addresses

Top level domains include:

  • .edu - educational sites
  • .com - commercial sites
  • .gov - government sites
  • .mil - military sites
  • .net - network administration sites
  • .org - nonprofit organizations
slide12

Country Top-Level Domains

ISO approved country domains

  • ccTLDs – Country Code Top-Level Domains
  • Follows ISO 3166-1
    • ca -- Canada
    • jp – Japan
    • nu -- Niue
    • uk – United Kingdom
    • us – United States
    • tv – Tuvalu
    • And more
internet addresses13
Internet Addresses

An Internet address includes: username@hostname.sub.dom

  • username is the person’s “mailbox”
  • hostname is the name of the host computer and is followed by one or more domains separated by periods:
    • host.subdomain.domain
    • host.domain
    • host.subdomain.subdomain.domain
internet addresses14
president@whitehouse.govInternet Addresses

Examples:

User President whose mail is stored on the host whitehouse in the government domain

User hazel_filbert at the server for Lane County, Oregon, k-12 school district

hazel_filbert@lane.k12.or.us

internet access options
Internet Access Options

Direct (dedicated) Connection

  • Computer has its own IP address and is attached to a LAN
  • No need to dial up
  • Files are stored on your computer
  • Response time is quick
internet access options16
Internet Access Options
  • Dialup Connections
    • limited connection using a modem
    • Full access dial up uses SLIP or PPP via modem
  • Broadband Connections
  • DSL service is newer, faster, and cheaper than ISDN
  • Can share phone line with voice traffic
internet access options17
Internet Access Options
  • Cable Modem Connection
    • allow Internet connections using shared TV cables
    • can exceed DSL speeds
    • Carry increased privacy and security risks
  • Satellite Connections
    • provides connections using DirecTV satellite dishes
internet access options18
Internet Access Options
  • Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
    • local ISPs provide connections through local telephone lines
    • national ISPs offer connections on a nationwide scale
internet applications communication and connection
Internet Applications:Communication and Connection
  • The Internet use the client/server model for most Internet applications.
  • In the client/server model a client program asks for information, and a server program fields the request and provides the requested information from databases and documents.
internet applications communication and connection20
Internet Applications:Communication and Connection
  • An email server acts like a local post office for a particular Internet host—a business, an organization, or an ISP.
  • File serversare common within LANs, but they’re also used to share programs, media files, and other computer data across the Internet.
internet applications communication and connection21
Internet Applications:Communication and Connection
  • File transfer protocol (FTP) allows users to download files from remote servers to their computers and to upload files.
  • File compression saves storage space on disk and saves transmission time when files are transferred through networks.
internet applications communication and connection22
Internet Applications:Communication and Connection
  • An application server stores applications- PC office applications, databases, or other applications - and makes them available to client programs that request them.
  • An application server might be housed at an application service provider (ASP) - a company that manages and delivers application services on a contract basis.
  • A Web server stores Web pages and sends pages to client Web browsers.
inside the web
Inside the Web
  • WWW is a distributed browsing and searching system developed at CERN
  • System was designed to give Internet documents unique addresses
  • HTML language was created for encoding and displaying documents
  • Browser software was built for viewing documents from remote locations
inside the web24
Inside the Web

Web site Jargon:

  • Web pages are made up of text and images
  • A Web site is a collection of web pages
  • A Home page is the main entry to a Web site
  • A Web browser like Netscape Communicator or Internet Explorer allows you to explore the Web by clicking links
inside the web25
Inside the Web

Hyperlinks (links)are words or pictures that act as buttons, allowing you to go to another Web page

Links are typically underlined or displayed in a different color

inside the web26
Inside the Web

More Web site Jargon

Links allow you to locate information without knowing its exact location (it may move from time to time)

Back and Forward buttons let you retrace your steps

Bookmarks and Favorites can be set up to mark your favorite Web locations

web addresses
Web Addresses

Pronounced Earl…like the name

A typical URL looks like this:

http://www.prenhall.com.beekman

web addresses28

Path to the host

http://

help/database.html

www.vote-smart.org/

Web Addresses

Protocol for Web pages

Dissecting Web Page address:

Resource Page

publishing on the web
An HTML document includes codes that determines the format, layout, and structure of a Web documentPublishing on the Web

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

HTML is not WYSIWYG

publishing on the web30
Publishing on the Web

This text coded as HTML …

  • <H1>Welcome to Computer Confluence</H1><b>Publishing on the Web</b>

Appears like this on the screen …

publishing on the web31
Publishing on the Web
  • Alternatives to HTML…
  • Programs that convert document format features into HTML codes
    • Microsoft Word, FileMaker
  • Web authoring programs
    • HomePage, GoLive, FrontPage
from hypertext to multimedia
Tables

Frames

Forms

Downloadable audio and video

Streaming audio and video

Real-time live audio or video

3-D environments

From Hypertext to Multimedia

Typical Web pages can contain:

from hypertext to multimedia33
Plug-Ins are software extensions that add new features. Examples include…

QuickTime

Shockwave/Flash

RealPlayer

Acrobat

From Hypertext to Multimedia
beyond html
Beyond HTML

Dynamic HTML:

adds more programming power to HTML by allowing code to automatically modify itself under certain circumstances

JavaScript:a simple language for enhancing HTML Web pages

beyond html35
Beyond HTML
  • WML
  • Wireless Markup Language helps create Web documents containing stock quotes, phone numbers, and other small nuggets of information

XML

  • Will replace HTML plus provide additional features and extensions

VRML

  • Virtual Reality Modeling Language creates 3-D virtual worlds
beyond html36
Beyond HTML

Java

  • A full-featured, cross platform, object-oriented programming language

Java applets

  • Small Java programs that can be automatically downloaded onto your client computer and can run on any platform