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Chapter 1. System Definitions & Concepts A system is an assemblage or combination of elements or parts forming a complex or whole system (such as transpiration system, airline system). Not every set of items, facts, methods or produces a system System Definitions & Concepts

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chapter 1 system definitions concepts
Chapter 1. System Definitions & Concepts
  • A system is an assemblage or combination of elements or parts forming a complex or whole system (such as transpiration system, airline system).
  • Not every set of items, facts, methods or produces a system
system definitions concepts
System Definitions & Concepts
  • The elements of a system. System are comprises of a components, attributes and relationship
    • Components are the operable parts of a system consists input process, output, memory etc.
    • Attributes are the properties and characterize the system
    • Relationship are link between components and attributes
    • A system is a set of inter-related components working together towards some common objective
system definitions concepts3
System Definitions & Concepts
  • A purposeful action performed by a system is its function
  • A common system function is that of altering material, energy or information
  • Structural components are the static parts
  • Operating components are the parts that perform the processing
  • Flow components are the material, energy or information being altered
system definitions concepts4
System Definitions & Concepts
  • System and Subsystem
    • System is incomplete without consideration for its position in the hierarchy of system
    • Every system is made up components (bike, automobile, sales system) and are broken into smaller parts
    • An example of a total student registration and record system (building, students, HW, SW, personnel, budget etc.)
    • Purpose for a given system to improve the overall performance of the business/mission
system definitions concepts5
System Definitions & Concepts
  • Classification of Systems
    • Natural and Human Made Systems (Dams, social environment, EPA)
    • Physical and Conceptual System (Mathematical, abstraction, mental state)
  • Static System
    • Is one having structure without activity (bridge)
  • Dynamic System
    • combine structural component with activity (school, building, students etc)
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System Definitions & Concepts
  • Classification of Systems
  • Closed Systems
    • It does not interact significantly with its environments
    • Involves determinist interactions with one to one correspondence between initial and final states (chemical equilibrium etc.)
  • Open Systems
    • Allows information, energy and matter cross its boundaries
    • Interact with their environments (plants, business organizations etc)
system definitions concepts7
System Definitions & Concepts
  • Cybernetics
    • Used in 1947 by Norbert Wiener
    • Comes form Greek word meaning “Steersman”
    • Cybernetics deals with self regulation (mechanical, electrical or biological)
    • Practical applications of cybernetics has been tremendous development of automatic equipment and process most controlled by computers
    • Cybernetics is new science of purposeful and optimal control applicable to complex processes in nature, society and business organizations
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System Definitions & Concepts
  • General systems Theory
    • Concerned with developing a systematic framework for developing general relationship in natural and human made world
      • static structure or framework (geography, universe)
      • simple dynamic system of clockworks (science)
      • level of thermostat (transmission and interpretation of the information)
      • level of the cell (open system)
      • level of the plant (botany)
      • level of the animal (mobility, behavior etc)
      • level of the human (self consciousness, symbols)
      • level of social organizations (value system, art, etc)
      • level of the unkowables ( no answer yet)
system definitions concepts9
System Definitions & Concepts
  • Transition of the System Age
    • The machine age
    • The system age
  • Technology and Technical Systems
    • Technology and Society
    • Technical System
  • Engineering and System Age
    • System Complexity and Scope
    • Technological growth and Change