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Robotics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Robotics Why Robotics? Practice Promise Why Robotics? Vibrant field Why Robotics? A window to the soul... Advances in AI and in Robotics are one and the same thing. What is a robot? What is a robot? MOVIT line follower Rug Warrior Self-guiding golf cart Sea-man USC helicopter

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Why Robotics?

Practice

Promise

slide3

Why Robotics?

Vibrant field

slide4

Why Robotics?

A window to the soul...

Advances in AI and in Robotics are one and the same thing.

slide6

What is a robot?

MOVIT line follower

Rug Warrior

Self-guiding golf cart

Sea-man

USC helicopter

Al Gore

Ripley’s Exoskeleton

Battlescar the BattleBot

slide7

categorizing robots

Abstraction

just is

software

hardware

human-controlled

Autonomy

independent

slide8

categorizing robots

Abstraction

just is

software

hardware

human-controlled

Autonomy

independent

slide9

What is robotics?

Autonomous : Robot :: ________ : Mudder

Sleeping

Unicycling

Overworked

Robot a physical system that autonomously senses the environment and acts in it.

slide11

Robot timeline

Isaac Asimov’s Laws of Robotics

First Law:

A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

Second Law:

A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

Third Law:

A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

Karl Capek

...

I, Robot

1921

1950

slide12

Robot timeline

Karl Capek

...

I, Robot

1921

1950

2020

slide13

Robot timeline

Karl Capek

Dalek

...

I, Robot

1921

1950

2020

2150

slide14

Robot timeline

Karl Capek

Dalek

...

I, Robot

1921

1950

2020

2150

2421

slide15

Real robot timeline

“Tortoise”

...

1951

slide16

Shakey

Nils Nilsson @ Stanford Research Inst.

first “general-purpose” mobile platform

...

...

1968

slide17

Shakey

Nils Nilsson @ Stanford Research Inst.

first “general-purpose” mobile platform

Living Room (L)

Kitchen (K)

sp

tv

sh

tvg

Bedroom (B)

...

...

1968

slide18

Shakey Start

START

  • Go(x,y)
  • Preconditions: At(sh,x)
  • Postconditions: At(sh,y)
  • Push(obj,x,y)
  • Preconditions: At(sh,x)  At(obj,x)
  • Postconditions: At(sh,y)  At(obj,y)

ACTIONS

At(sh,L)  At(sp,K)  At(tvg,B)  At(tv,L)

Go(L,B)

Push(tv,L,B)

Go(L,K)

Push(tv,L,K)

At(sh,K)  At(sp,K)  At(tvg,B)  At(tv,K)

At(sh,L)  At(sp,L)  At(tvg,L)  At(tv,L)

GOAL

slide19

Stanford Cart

Hans Moravec @ SAIL

ACTING

“functional” task decomposition

SENSING

planning

perception

task execution

motor control

world modeling

...

...

1976

slide21

Insects

Rodney Brooks @ MIT

planning and reasoning

“behavioral” task decomposition

identify objects

build maps

ACTING

SENSING

explore

wander

avoid objects

...

...

1985

slide22

Subsumption Architecture

runaway behavior

FSM / DFA

slide23

Subsumption Architecture

wander behavior

runaway behavior

FSM / DFA

slide24

Subsumption Architecture

navigate behavior

wander behavior

runaway behavior

FSM / DFA

slide25

Subsumption Architecture

Genghis in action!

slide26

Beyond subsumption

Navlab & ALVINN

Polly

...

...

1995