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  1. Virtual Reality Trend for Digital Animation and Global Success Cases Jim X. Chen, Ph.D. Director of Computer Graphics Lab George Mason University Fairfax, VA 22030

  2. Contents • Introduction to Virtual Reality and Hardware • Virtual Reality Current Trend • Virtual Reality Software and Digital Animation Systems • VR Research, Applications and Global Successful Cases

  3. Computer World Intro to VR & Hardware Conventional Computer VR-based Computer Computer World

  4. Virtual Reality VR technologies Character CRT Keyboard Computer graphics Graphic CRT Mouse tablet Realtime CG Virtual console 3D mouse Computer simulation/ visualization Video arts Virtual products design Tele-conference Tele-Existence 3D CAD TV phone Tele-Operation Computer Aided Design Telephone All technologies meet together at VR !!

  5. A sense of of immersion • Stereoscopic • Tracking • Tactile & haptic • Acoustic, etc.

  6. 3D Graphics and Stereoscopes • 3D graphics • User controlled movement and view • Objects may respond to actions and environment • Stereoscopes • 3D graphics • 2 projections

  7. Crystal Eyes (

  8. Head Mounted Displays ( (

  9. Tracking Systems(

  10. ImmersaDesk (

  11. CAVE( (

  12. RAVE (

  13. Immersive Work Wall

  14. VisionDome Alternate Realities Corporation

  15. Tactile and Haptic Devices PHANToM (

  16. Cyberglove (

  17. Immersion Corp: Impulse Engines (2D and 4D [pinch])

  18. Sarcos Dextrous Master

  19. REFLEX • FREFLEX is a 7 joints articulation systems that mimics human motion • Is an exosqueleton system allowing real-time control of robots • Update rate of 130Hz

  20. Exoskeleton (Iowa State U.) • An other exoskeleton system developed at Iowa State University • Based on electromagnetic coupling

  21. CyberGrasp

  22. 3 DoF Force Feedback Joystick

  23. CyberTouch

  24. TouchMaster • TouchMaster is a vibro-tactile transducer commercialized by EXOS • Use 6 to 10 speakers coils • An vibrate at a frequency of 210 Hz

  25. Virtual Reality - Immersion • Key to the VR field is “immersion”. • A VR environment is immersive if it gives the user the feeling of being inside a scene, rather than simply looking at the scene. • True VR is nonexistent, but we do what we can: • Create a scene that is viewed by the user as if they are in it. • Allow the user to interact with objects in the scene in something approximating a “natural” way. • Bring in as many senses as we can: • Sight & sound are the main ones we deal with. • Lots of research is begin done on touch (haptic interfaces). • Taste & smell: forget it, for now.

  26. Virtual / Synthetic Environments Tele-presence Presence Cyberspace Immersion Simulator / Motion Sickness Lag time 3D rendering / Graphics Engine VRML Bodysuit Head Mounted Display (HMD) 3D Mouse Joystick Stereoscopic Display Liquid Crystal Shutterglasses Ultrasonic / Magnetic / Optical Tracking Cyber / Power / Data Glove Haptic Display Position Tracking VR Terminology

  27. Window on World (WoW), Desktop Immersive Telepresence Mixed Reality(head up displays) Fishtank VR Entry level VR Basic VR Advanced VR Projected VR (maybe with shutterglasses) Cockpit Simulators Types of VR

  28. Output Devices • Visual • Computer Screen, Head Mounted Display, 3D Shutter Glasses, Cyberscope, ImmersaDesk, CAVE, Spherical Projection, Big Screen Technology, Visiondome, Reality Centre. • Audio (Stereo) • Speakers, Earphones, Speech, Music • Tactile • Tactile Gloves • Motion • eg. Flight Simulators using pneumatic motion simulators

  29. DataGlove and Bodysuit Mouse, Joystick, Keyboard, 3D Mouse Movement Trackers (eg Polhemus) Gesture Recognition (with DataGlove) Speech Recognition Input Devices

  30. Virtual Reality: Current Trend • PC-driven VR system ( • multi-channel synchronized PC-IG • Networked virtual environments with avatars ( • Web3D immersive systems ( • Image-based/Quicktime VR

  31. Digital Communication and Animation: Active Worlds (AW) • Universe, populated by Worlds • Universe server: • • World servers: • anywhere on the Internet • Enter the Universe • Select and enter a world in that Universe

  32. The background image The horizontal 0 level surface of the world The virtual reality of AW Getting into a world in the universe ….

  33. The virtual reality of AW … later there was: • an avatar • virtual embodiment of person in AW • building blocks (objects) • the building material in AW • the blocks are active - they can respond with some action, or provide additional information.

  34. The window to an AW universe/world 3D area Web area Multifunction area Synchronous communication area

  35. What is Web3D? • The term Web3d describes any programming or descriptive language that can be used to deliver interactive 3D objects and worlds across the internet. • Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML), Java3D and X3D (under development) - also any proprietary languages that have been developed for the same purpose come under the umbrella of Web3d. • : web3d consortuim

  36. 3D for the Web • Exploring web-based 3D environments requires the use of a Plug-in • Formats/architectures include: • The Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML): viewers include Blaxxun Contact, Cosmo Player and Cortona • X3D • Superscape e-Visualizer and Viscape • Cult 3D • Biovirtual 3DMeNow • Active Worlds • Shout3D • Shockwave 3D

  37. History of Web3D

  38. Java3D - Class

  39. Web3D games • • •

  40. Image-based Virtual Reality • VR system using Image-based Rendering • Presence + Interaction + Autonomy

  41. Image-based Virtual Reality • Characteristics of Images • Fixed scene geometry • Fixed camera movement • Fixed light condition • Limitation on image resolution

  42. Image-based Virtual Reality • QuickTimeVR was introduced in 1994 • photorealistic virtual reality type effectswith limited interaction • Applications : Museum, Gallery, Sightseeing, Model House, Cyber Shopping Mall

  43. Virtual Reality Software and Digital Animation Systems • Low-level graphics libraries • Visualization • Modeling and Rendering • Animation and Simulation • VR Software/Web3D: inventor, VRML, X3D, WTK, WUP, etc.

  44. Virtual Reality Software and Digital Animation Systems • Book: Guide to Graphics Software Tools: • A shortcut to graphics programming: shortest textbook that covers all • A list of all graphics related tools, including Web3D and Virtual Reality • Rich online sources to all different tools

  45. VR Research, Applications and Global Successful Cases Education/ Training Design Engineering Entertainment Museum Arts VR application Medicine Scientific Visualization Communication Products Engineering

  46. VR Research • Better, Faster VR with less side-effects. • The long-term effects of VR. • Applications of VR (eg for assessment of brain damage and rehabilitation) • New VR machinery. • VR (and 3D) as the interface to a process. • Presence (what is it and how do we measure it)

  47. VR Research • Problems • VR still costly for good system • Still seen as “research” by most companies • Gap between promise and delivery • Applications • Demonstrating products, Sales, Design, Manufacturing, 3D modelling, Walk through, Visualisation, Training, Process control...

  48. Industry • A couple of companies using VR • VOLVO • to test car interior designs and to demonstrate new cars on virtual roads. • Combined VR and real car cockpit, gives tactile, visual and audible information. • Nokia • VR + PHANToM, to test new and potential telephone designs. • British Telecom • For visualisation of extremely complex telephone network in England and isolation of faults using 3D visual cues.

  49. Cockpit Simulation (flight simulators) Complex Machinery - manipulate parts and see into difficult areas with on-line help In dangerous Situations, eg. Nuclear Reactor - quick in and out, get used to the layout before entering for real toreduce the chance for human error. With Complex Procedures,eg. Surgical Operations, can practice onvirtual patients first, or have the patientscanned and made into a virtual model - complete with force feedback on the surgical instruments. Patient teachers of real-world situations Safer and Cheaper environment, no lives at risk. People with special needs Training / Education

  50. (Augmented) Telepresence • VR overlaid onto real-world with see-through HMD. • eg: Heads-up display in fighter plane • eg: Surgeon operating on a patient with overlays from CAT scans to highlight critical nerves, tendons etc.