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12 Overview density elasticity & Hooke’s Law Homework: RQs: 8, 9, 10, 11. Density Density = mass/volume depends on chemical type and structure water 1.0 grams/cm 3 ice 0.9 grams/cm 3 copper 8.9 grams/cm 3 lead 11.9 grams/cm 3 Density Units 1.0 grams/cm 3 = 1,000 kg/m 3

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12 overview
12 Overview
  • density
  • elasticity & Hooke’s Law
  • Homework:
  • RQs: 8, 9, 10, 11.
density
Density
  • Density = mass/volume
  • depends on chemical type and structure
  • water 1.0 grams/cm3
  • ice 0.9 grams/cm3
  • copper 8.9 grams/cm3
  • lead 11.9 grams/cm3
density units
Density Units
  • 1.0 grams/cm3 = 1,000 kg/m3
  • think of 264 gallons of water, each gallon weighs 8.35 lbs.
elasticity ability to regain shape
Elasticity - ability to regain shape
  • elastic material – perfectly regains shape
  • inelastic material – incompletely regains shape
  • elastic limit – force in which an elastic material becomes inelastic
hooke s law
Hooke’s Law
  • Elastic Force ~ amount of stretch or compression
  • F ~ Dx; F/Dx = spring constant (stiffness)
  • Example: many springs obey Hooke’s Law within their elastic limit.
summary
Summary
  • density is mass/volume, 1.0 grams/cm3 = 1,000 kg/m3
  • elastic materials return to original shape
  • Hooke’s Law: deformation ~ force
crystal structure
Crystal Structure

solids with a regularly repeating pattern are crystals

Examples: Graphite NaCl

hexagonal

cubic

x ray crystallography
X-Ray Crystallography

X-Rays are used to determine the structure of crystalline solids

raindrops
raindrops
  • which falls faster, small or large raindrops?
  • 5 mm drops: ~9 m/s (20 mph)
  • 0.5 mm: ~2 m/s (4 mph)
  • why?
  • A. Scaling
scaling
Scaling
  • mass & weight increase at L3 , but area & strength increase with L2.
  • raindrops: weight increases faster than air-drag as size increases, causing terminal velocity to increase.
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