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1. Camera 2. Shooting Interviews 3. Shooting B-roll 4. Editing. Camera. Camera Menu Focus Camera vs. VTR Zoom Tripod Camera Stance Care Microphones. Zoom Mic Input Headphone Input Manual Focus 3-Chip www.bhphoto.com. Camera Kit Mini-DV Camera Tripod

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1. Camera 2. Shooting Interviews 3. Shooting B-roll 4. Editing

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  • Camera
    • Menu
    • Focus
    • Camera vs. VTR
    • Zoom
  • Tripod
  • Camera Stance
  • Care
  • Microphones

Mic Input

Headphone Input

Manual Focus



Camera Kit

Mini-DV Camera


Wireless Lavaliere Microphone

XLR to Mini


Firewire-check size

Mini-DV Tape

interview chunk
Sound Bite




Interview Chunk
getting good bites
Getting Good Bites
  • Nervous People
    • Childhood, hobbies
      • Avoid topics strangers talk about
    • Get facts beforehand
  • Location matters
  • Sit before stand
no close ended questions
No close-ended questions
  • Waste tape
  • Rephrase question
  • Silence reveals
shooting the interview
Shooting the Interview
  • Eye-level with lens
  • Spell and say name
  • Sit close to lens
  • Look at you, not camera
  • Videographer invisible
  • Don’t allow person to hold the mic
  • Avoid talking during interview
Get video of interview

Use lav/clip mic

Use tripod

Reporter should not be in shot

framing the interview

Forehead shots okay

Watch to make room for supers or titles


Distance between tip of nose and edge of video frame



Framing the Interview
lighting your subject
Lighting Your Subject
  • Light source in front of subject
    • Sun in eyes
  • No windows
    • Close blinds
    • Shoot window out of frame
    • Desk lights
  • Light when possible
presidential debate
Presidential Debate
  • 3000 Americans
  • More than 2.6 million viewers
    • 18-34 highest viewership in cable news history
  • Questions
    • http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=-0BPnnvI47Q
    • http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=ZqrpjLZJVu4&eurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eyoutube%2Ecom%2Fdebates
  • http://uk.youtube.com/debates
  • TV
    • Spot news or mini-newscasts
  • Newspapers
    • Features
      • http://video.on.nytimes.com/?fr_story=cb13326d3b69e2de7b460608ca8fda26d941eb85
    • Slideshows
  • Chunks or montages
    • http://www.madison.com/wsj/projects/hiphop/index.html
narration fill in the gap with pictures
Narration (fill in the gap with pictures)
  • Hurricane Katrina http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/video/2005/09/08/VI2005090800949.html
  • Florida tornado


  • http://www.beet.tv/2007/03/the_newsroom_of.html
  • http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid1119166902
online publisher s association
Online Publisher’s Association
  • Fastest growing part of news organizations
  • Peak hours
    • 5pm-11pm, 8am – 5 pm
  • News/Current Events Videos
    • #1 (sports highlights)
  • Ideal Length
    • 1-2 minutes
    • 3-5 minutes
    • 2.7 minutes
  • Most watch it in its entirety
  • 54% shoot video, 11% upload
  • Male, 18-49, single
make a promise
Make a Promise
  • Tell them what they are going to get, and where they are going
    • Date/Time Stamp
    • Movie Icon
    • Raw Video
  • http://www.keyt.com/news/local/6647267.html?linkSource=edhat.com
  • Passive shooting
  • Let them experience the news
    • Unfolding events
  • http://www.i-am-bored.com/bored_link.cfm?link_id=16220
other trends
Other trends
  • Video Letters to the Editor
    • http://video.on.nytimes.com/?fr_story=54a96b0d367da6ce96eb1401f0e127f76688ddd6
rethinking the scoop
Rethinking the Scoop
  • KNBC-TV in L.A. morning editorial meeting
    • http://video.nbc4.tv/player/?id=84495
  • KPIX
    • http://cbs5.com/video/?id=20492@kpix.dayport.com
media players
Media Players
  • Computer software that plays back multimedia files
    • Flash 7 (97%), 8 (94%), 9 (56%)
    • Quicktime
      • High quality, wide compatibility and free
      • iMovie and FCP generate Quicktime by default
      • Encoded at 256k in a 320X240frame size
    • Windows Media Player
    • Real Player
rule of thirds
Rule of Thirds

Animated Buzz

b roll
  • WS – wide shot
    • Establishing Shot
    • Closing Shot
  • MS
  • MCU
  • CU
    • Headroom
    • Noseroom
Shoot for :15



Record Ambience


Close to action

Vary levels and angles

Background distraction


Opening and closing shot

Avoid zooming while recording

Report with your ears

Shutup during shoots

No pans or zooms

Action creates reaction

Shoot and move

Frame each shot

Depth of field

Video is inherently flat

Eyes, not ears and backs of heads

Avoid signs or buildings




think soap opera
Think Soap Opera
  • Action or Human Interest
  • Close-ups
  • Hold shots longer
  • No pans or zooms
    • http://avitamarc.com/videos/8_07/11_Zooming.mov
  • No dissolves
no blair witch

Focus on content, not distracted by shaky video


Find level surfaces

2 to 1 prefer traditional

Connecting vs. terrible video

No Blair Witch
think in sequences
50% close-ups or extreme close-ups

25% WS

25% MS


Think in Sequences
lead room
Lead room
  • Walking noseroom video
  • Let subject walk into screen, follow them, stop, let them walk out of video
    • Never stop recording until action in complete
  • Walking shots
Shoot wide

Let action complete

Face front

Follow close


Keep the same distance

Get close to action

increasing b roll
Increasing B-roll
  • More montages
  • Different angles
  • Different levels
  • W, M,CU
  • 1:30 pack

-22 different shots at :04 each

editing process
Editing Process
  • Jump cut
  • Cut-in
  • Cut-away (Reacting to the action)
  • Macro
sharpen listening skills

Look for nats

Ambient vs. Nats

Anything you hear

Get close to face

Ask person a question

Sharpen Listening Skills
recognize stories that deserve video
Recognize Stories that Deserve Video
  • Action/Human Interest
  • https://www.communicationsmgr.com/projects/1296/default.asp
shooting action
Shooting Action

Thanks to Animated Buzz

  • BBC Training
    • http://www.bbctraining.com/onlineCourses.asp
  • Berkeley Multimedia Reporting and Convergence
    • http://journalism.berkeley.edu/multimedia/
  • Cyndy Green’s VideoJournalism Blog
    • http://cyndygreen.wordpress.com/
  • MultiMedia Shooter Blog
    • http://www.multimediashooter.com/wp/
  • Angela Grant’s News Videographer Blog
    • http://newsvideographer.com/?page_id=2
shooting exercise
Shooting Exercise
  • No Staging
  • 2 different sequences each
  • http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=O7DDpIVLFKs
nonlinear editing
Nonlinear Editing
  • Linear
    • Edit sequentially
  • Nonlinear, nondestructive
    • Edit shots in different orders, while underlying media is untouched (changes never affect the media)
  • iMovie
  • Final Cut Pro/Express
  • Avid Express
  • Sony Vegas Movie Studio
  • Pinnacle Studio
  • Windows Movie Maker
  • Adobe Premiere
final cut express vs pro
Final Cut Express vs. Pro
  • $249 vs. $999
  • No batch capture
  • Keyframe motions, not filters
  • Timecode will not be displayed
  • No three-way color corrector
  • Assembling each shot together or trimming
    • Shot 1, Shot 2, Shot 3, Interview
    • Trimming Interview down
    • Show, don’t tell
editing advice
Editing Advice
  • Sequence
    • Editing pictures of the same object together
    • Cut-ins, cutaways, different angles
    • Never use the same shot twice
  • No frames of black
  • Cut on breath
editing advice1
Editing Advice
  • Shots about :04-:05 with the exception of action
    • Let action complete
  • Each shot should flow logically
    • WS of room
    • MS of person’s body
    • CU of face
    • CU of paper
avoid jump cuts
Avoid Jump Cuts
  • Two similar shots edit together
    • MS of person and MS of same person at different angle create a jumping effect
    • Instead use CU or WS of person
free tv
Free TV
  • Joost
  • Dailymotion
  • Google Video
  • Freetube
  • Blip.TV
  • ABC, NBC
video tools
Video Tools
  • Video Search Engines
    • http://www.truveo.com/
    • Google Video
  • Rocketboom Vlog
    • http://www.rocketboom.com/vlog/
  • Movavi free video conversion
    • http://online.movavi.com/
  • Windows Media Encoder
  • www.mediaconverter.org/
  • VT3 Studio Free trial
    • T3 will convert QuickTime, AVI, DV to Flash, iPod, iPhone or 3GP with one click in 1/3 real time
    • http://www.vt3studio.com/home.php
  • Resume Tapes
    • http://uk.youtube.com/results?search_query=resume+tape&search=Search
avi quicktime mpeg
AVI, QuickTime, MPEG
  • YouTube
    • MPEG-4
    • .mov, .flv, wmv, .avi
  • MPEG-4
    • Preferred because it is not locked into specific formats or players
  • AVI (PC)
    • Microsoft for Intel, Windows Media Player
    • Response to Apple
  • (Windows Media Player, RealOne, Quicktime, Winamp)
  • WMV (Windows Media File)MOV
    • Quicktime Movie by Apple
    • High quality, more storage
video search engine optimization
Video Search Engine Optimization
  • Skilled at finding text-based content
  • Conversion destroys metadata
  • Add textual data to video pieces
    • climate-matters-video.wmv vs. climatetalksvideo.com or videofile.wmv
  • Video hosting sites (YouTube, Brightcove)
    • Good, descriptive tags
user interface

Organize the Media Project


Preview and adjust clips


Connected to the timeline

Audio Meters

Tool Palette


User Interface
Active Window


Arrange Screen layout

Folder that contains clips and sequences File -> New Bin,

Drag Clips into Bin

Renaming Clips/Bins

Changing colors

Control -> Labels

  • Double-click clip to open in viewer
  • Yellow Arrow = Playhead
  • In = I, Out = O, Space Bar = Play
  • Add Marker ^
  • Audio Tab
  • Pop-up Menu
    • Title Safe/Wire Frame Text (Drag to Timeline) Lower Third
canvas and timeline
Canvas and Timeline
  • Canvas
    • Same as Viewer
    • JKL - Play backward, stop, play forward
  • Timeline
    • Mute and Solo
    • Control Clip Overlay
    • Track Height Sequence
    • Settings Track
undo and redo
Undo and Redo
  • Undo Default (10), 99
    • User Preferences
  • Save a copy


Fit to Fill

Fill in Gap

  • Control click on transition point or Effects
  • Drag length or Control Click (also copy)
  • Video Drag transitions (Cross Dissolve, Fade In and Fade Out)
  • Audio (Add transition, control)
    • Cross Fade (+3dB) Volume constant through out fade
    • Cross Fade (0dB) Fades first clip out while simultaneously fading in
stereo pair
Stereo Pair
  • Left and right ear locate subtle differences
  • Stereo should use two microphones, two tracks for recording and two speakers for playback
  • All stereo recording require two channels, but 2 channels are not necessarily stereo. If you use only one microphone to record, it is not stereo, no difference from mono recording, contain exactly the same information just on two different channels. Two different mics placed at two different locations (ears)
  • MUSIC or listen to 2 speakers to hear subtly hear 2 different sounds
editing audio
Editing Audio
  • Capturing Audio (-12 dB)
  • Nat Pops off the top
  • Editing them in Pen tool
    • Bad audio pops
    • Drag
  • Use Title Safe
  • No smaller than 25 pt
  • Sans Serif (Arial)
  • Pop-up Menu
  • Control Tab
other tips
Freeze Frame


Tool Palette

Audio/Video Settings

Set Scratch Disks

User Preferences

System Settings

Other Tips
pixel dimensions aspect ratio
Pixel Dimensions Aspect Ratio
  • Standard Definition
    • 4:3 720 X 480 pixels
  • HD
    • 16:9 1280 X 720 or 1920 X 1080
  • Red line
  • Sequence